過ぎる means "to pass" and is used both transitively and intransitively. It may be used in basically any situation that relates to someone or something passing by. ～過ぎる shows something "is too...”or someone is doing something "too much". When used with adjectives, you drop the く or に in the 連用形 altogether. Likewise, with 形容動詞, you don't use the copula.
|Verb||食べる ＋ すぎる → 食べすぎる|
|形容詞||小さい ＋ すぎる → 小さすぎる|
|形容動詞||簡単 + すぎる → 簡単すぎる|
漢字 Note: This is usually written in ひらがな when used as an ending.
I drank too much sake, and I have a hangover.
This is too small. Do you have a bigger one?
Please don't overeat.
To pass through midnight.
漢字 Note: Be careful to not confuse this 中 with the suffix ちゅう・じゅう. It turns out that 夜中, which is read as やちゅう, means "at night", but it's a 書き言葉.
5. あんた、頭がよすぎるよ。(Casual; potentially rude)
You're too smart!
This question is too difficult.
Isn't that camera too high?
Tomorrow will probably be too late.
You can never be too careful when crossing the street.
You expect too much of her.
No matter how much you like it, eating too much is bad for your health.
He went too far.
This physics problem is too difficult, and understanding it is useless.
It's important to not get too close to the computer screen.
Lost in thought, I walked past my house.
Word Note: 通り過ぎる usually means to "pass by", but it can also have the sense "going too far".
Grammar Note: What about the negative? Take the following two similar phrases into consideration. 読まなすぎる vs. 読みすぎない. The first one states that one "reads too little". The second states that one "doesn't read too much". There may also be cases when ～なすぎる is inappropriate for pragmatic reasons in particular contexts.
17. 彼は何もできなすぎる。 △
He can't do anything.
The Intensifier ～ない
There is also a suffix ～ない that increases the intensity of a given adjective. Inserting さ when using them with ～すぎる is wrong, but speakers occasionally do so anyway.
The confusing part about this is that this does come from the negative ない. It so happened that late in Classical Japanese it acquired the meaning of just being an intensifier to particular phrases.
To lead a sloven lifestyle.
That movie is just completely dirty.
To immodestly quarrel.
The humble life of a salary-man
To look at the angelic smile of a child,
Don't drive all clumsy.
An innocent child
Don't say something so absurd!
There are a few cases where the original adjective and the adjective with the intensifier ～ない exist, just like above. Another example is 忙しない and 忙しい. The first means "seems busy" and the other means "really busy", but it is still the case that the former is more intense.
He's a real busybody.
A season so busy with no time to rest
Another odd pair is 切な versus 切ない. 切な is now typically 切なる, odd giving that this is more Classical in form. The word means "earnest", and you would think 切ない would mean that too. It did, but over time it gained more negative undertones, and now it refers to heartrending sadness. This, though, sprouted out from the meaning of "earnest".
An earnest face
To withhold heart-wrenching.
Another weird word is 怪しからん. This comes from the old verb 怪しかる, but rather than being opposites, they accidentally became the same thing, both meaning "inexcusable".
30. 親切に扱ってくれた人の不満をいうとは怪しからん。(Dialectical/older person)
Complaining about those who have treated you well is inexcusable.
The 一段 verb 続ける means "to continue". The verb is normally used for "one's own" actions. If the verb happens naturally, the verb 続く is used instead. Although you would think that this distinction would be carried in compounds, ～続く is essentially only seen with the verb 降る.
|一段 Verbs||見る ＋ 続ける →||見続ける|
|五段 Verbs||泳ぐ ＋ 続ける →||泳ぎ続ける|
|Noun + Copula||Nounだ ＋ 続ける →||男性であり続ける|
|形容詞||美しい ＋ 続ける →||美しくあり続ける|
|形容動詞||自由な ＋ 続ける →||自由であり続ける|
Please continue studying Japanese.
Continue one's own way.
33. 彼氏んちまで歩き続けた。(Casual 東京弁)
I continued walking up to my boyfriend's house.
The phone kept ringing.
Hachiko waited day after day for his master to return.
Culture Note: ハチ公 is a dog that was so loyal to his master, it waited for him to return at the station even after the owner's death.
They continued working.
The baby was continuing to sleep soundly.
The fire is continuing to burn.
It is continuing to rain.
Although she has already become a corpse, mother will after all continue an existence of having Sachiko ache this way.
From 冷たい誘惑 by 乃南アサ.
1. すでに is often not spelled in 漢字. However, 既に is more formal and literary.
2. 骸 means "corpse" and is stronger than other words like 遺体, which is typically used in news reports, or 死体.
3. 祥 is a name character meaning "auspicious".
4. 乃 is also a name character. Its most important reading is の. This is used to write the particle の in many names and in old writing.
～続ける VS ～のを続ける
These two patterns translate the same as "to continue...", but they're not exactly the same. ～続ける shows an action/state that is ongoing. The latter simply states that there is a continuation of some sort. For example, a way to distinguish this in English would be similar to "she is continuing to watch the show" versus "she continues to watch the show". The first shows the ongoing state of her watching the show whereas the latter just states that she continues to regularly watch the show.
She's continuing to watch that show.
She continues to watch that show.
漢字 Note: You can use 見 instead of 観, but the latter is often used for watching things like movies, shows, etc.
急ぐ means "to hurry" and can be seen in both transitive and intransitive contexts. As a transitive verb, it can be used in compounds to show that one is trying to hurry and finish something. Its –て form 急いで can also be used to show this as an adverbial phrase. It is best for this ending to see it used in a compound verb before using it as such.
To be in a hurry to sell.
To buy apples in a hurry.
He hastened to his death.
I hurried and got dressed.
To hurry to school.
Word Note: 焦る is not the same thing. This implies frustration that things might not go as planned.
He hurried it and failed.