過ぎる means "to pass" and is used both transitively and intransitively. It may be used in basically any situation that relates to someone or something passing by. ～過ぎる shows something "is too...”or someone is doing something "too much". When used with adjectives, you drop the く or に in the 連用形 altogether. Likewise, with 形容動詞, you don't use the copula.
|Verb||食べる ＋ すぎる → 食べすぎる|
|形容詞||小さい ＋ すぎる → 小さすぎる|
|形容動詞||簡単 + すぎる → 簡単すぎる|
漢字 Note: This is usually written in ひらがな when used as an ending.
I drank too much sake, and I have a hangover.
This is too small. Do you have a bigger one?
Please don't overeat.
To pass through midnight.
漢字 Note: Be careful to not confuse this 中 with the suffix ちゅう・じゅう. It turns out that 夜中, which is read as やちゅう, means "at night", but it's a 書き言葉.
5. あんた、頭がよすぎるよ。(Casual; potentially rude)
You're too smart!
This question is too difficult.
Isn't that camera too high?
Tomorrow will probably be too late.
You can never be too careful when crossing the street.
You expect too much of her.
No matter how much you like it, eating too much is bad for your health.
He went too far.
This physics problem is too difficult, and understanding it is useless.
It's important to not get too close to the computer screen.
Lost in thought, I walked past my house.
Word Note: 通り過ぎる usually means to "pass by", but it can also have the sense "going too far".
Grammar Note: What about the negative? Take the following two similar phrases into consideration. 読まなすぎる vs. 読みすぎない. The first one states that one "reads too little". The second states that one "doesn't read too much". There may also be cases when ～なすぎる is inappropriate for pragmatic reasons in particular contexts.
17. 彼は何もできなすぎる。 △
He can't do anything.
The Intensifier ～ない
There is also a suffix ～ない that increases the intensity of a given adjective. Inserting さ when using them with ～すぎる is wrong, but speakers occasionally do so anyway.
The confusing part about this is that this does come from the negative ない. It so happened that late in Classical Japanese it acquired the meaning of just being an intensifier to particular phrases.
To lead a sloven lifestyle.
That movie is just completely dirty.
To immodestly quarrel.
The humble life of a salary-man
To look at the angelic smile of a child,
Don't drive all clumsy.
An innocent child
Don't say something so absurd!
There are a few cases where the original adjective and the adjective with the intensifier ～ない exist, just like above. Another example is 忙しない and 忙しい. The first means "seems busy" and the other means "really busy", but it is still the case that the former is more intense.
He's a real busybody.
A season so busy with no time to rest
Another odd pair is 切な versus 切ない. 切な is now typically 切なる, odd giving that this is more Classical in form. The word means "earnest", and you would think 切ない would mean that too. It did, but over time it gained more negative undertones, and now it refers to heartrending sadness. This, though, sprouted out from the meaning of "earnest".
An earnest face
To withhold heart-wrenching.
Another weird word is 怪しからん. This comes from the old verb 怪しかる, but rather than being opposites, they accidentally became the same thing, both meaning "inexcusable".
30. 親切に扱ってくれた人の不満をいうとは怪しからん。(Dialectical/older person)
Complaining about those who have treated you well is inexcusable.