しも is essentially an emphatic し. However, its use in a sentence reflects a more productive use of し itself. Though we often see し in the spoken language today, the particle has existed for a long time, and the combination of the emphatic し and emphatic も has been around just as long. Although しも has survived along with し, its usage is primarily restricted to the following phrases. Notice how it is designated to nominal (or nominalized) phrases or after adverbial phrases.
Aside from the last phrase 折しも, all of these phrases are used in negative sentences. This just goes to show you how many restrictions are on its use, and it's no surprise that most of these phrases are most frequently used in 書き言葉.
|誰しも||Everyone, anyone (very emphatic)||～ならまだしも||It’s one thing, but...|
|必ずしも||Not necessarily||～なきにしもあらず||It's not to say that...won't|
Phrase Note: 必ずしも is often paired with ～とは限らない ending the sentence.
Speech Style Note: ～なきにしもあらず and 折しも are especially 書き言葉.
Variant Note: A rarer variant of 折しも is 時しも. This essentially does not show up in Modern Japanese works, but it does show up sometimes in Early Modern Japanese works. Meaning wise, 折 and 時 mean the same thing here.
Everyone is afraid of going to hell.
Power, in itself, doesn't necessarily bring happiness.
Just at that time, the earthquake occurred.
Just then, the avalanche was sparked, and the two mountain climbers went missing. They are still to this moment unaccounted for.
This phrase can be used after nouns, verbs, and adjectives. For verbs and adjectives, you attach it to the 終止形. For 形容動詞, simply add after the stem.
It's one thing to be 1 or 2 days, but an over ten day unexcused leave is intolerable and against common sense.
Being fresh is one thing, but who would ever by fruit that's discolored and black?
If it were just cold, that would be one thing, but I've gotten hungry.
Coming to explain the situation is one thing, but (he) won't even show his face.
Once is fine, but you've written the word incorrectly ten times now.
It would be best to just die.
This is a double negative phrase which functions as a positive expression, and it ultimately has the meaning of 有り得る. Although it is a predicate phrase, it is still followed by the copula. Remember thatしも is here to show emphasis (強調）. It is seldom used in the spoken language, but it can still show up.
It's not to say that the kid doesn't have (any) hope.
The typhoon is approaching, so don't forget your umbrella because it's not like it couldn't rain.
It's not to say that your camera won't suddenly break down.
That's because it's not the case that you won't die in an accident or something a few minutes later.
With Other Particles?
16. 男たちは縁側で将棋に興じている。街路樹のプラタナスの葉ずれ。ああいうのをしも、人間の文化といわずし て、何というのだろう。
The men are amusing themselves with shogi on the veranda while plane trees rustle on the sides of the road. What would you call this if not human culture?
By 田辺聖子in 古川柳おちぼひろい.
Grammar Note: The particle しも used to be more versatile in the past. In the example above, the particle is used after を. This is very rare now, but it is not ungrammatical.
必ず VS きっと VS 絶対(に)
So, given that you have now seen these three similar words for quite a while, you're probably wondering how they're different. There is overlap. So, focus not only on the differences but also the commonalities.
Some of these things feature grammar points that we haven't studied yet, but you should know the overall usage of these three words.
There's no doubt about it.
To record absolute zero
She's not always busy.
War will inevitably occur.
Do not fail to keep your word/promise.
I will certainly come sometime tomorrow.
To grab absolute power
We will surely win.
I'll be bound.
That'll never do.
You must never do something like that.