This lesson is our introductory lesson to the adverbial particle mo も, which is crucial to expressing "also."
The particle mo も follows nouns to express the meaning of "also/too," expressing how two things are one of the same thing. Whenever this meaning is used, the overall tone of the sentence is softened. In grammatical relation to other particles, mo も can appear after subjects and objects, but it can't be used with the particles that mark those purposes. Meaning, it can't be used after ga が, wa は, or wo を※. Instead, those particles get deleted from the sentence altogether.
O-tenki mo ii desu ne.
The weather's good, too.
Nekkuresu mo kaimashita.
I also bought a necklace.
Kōhii mo kudasai.
Coffee, too, please.
Boku mo onaka ga suita.
I'm also hungry.
Kyō no shiai mo owatta!
Today's match has ended too!
Nihongo mo dekimasu ka?
Can you also speak Japanese
Mushi mo kirai desu!
I also hate bugs!
Watashi mo Nihonjin de wa arimasen.
I, too, am not Japanese.
Boku mo kizu no naori mo hayai.
I also heal quickly.
Grammar Note: Ex. 9 is a perfect example of how X wa は Y ga が Z can transform with mo も. Both the topic and object markers can be replaced with mo も, and the sense of "also" extends separately. So, in Ex.9, the speaker is relating himself to the speaker while also mentioning how he also heals quickly, suggesting there is another skill he is quick at.
It is also possible to see multiple mo も in the same sentence in the pattern X mo Y mo (XもYも), which translates as either "both X and Y" or "neither X nor Y" depending on whether the sentence is positive or negative respectively. This, too, is not limited to just two words. Multiple 'topics' can be chained together with a sequence of mo も. This is not the same as Ex. 9 because X and Y are not both topics in it.
Tōkyō mo Kyōto mo ame desu.
There is rain in both Tokyo and Kyoto.
Pokemon mo Dejimon mo daisuki deshita.
I loved both Pokemon and Digimon.
Rafaeru-kun mo Denisu-kun mo baka da ne.
Both Rafael and Dennis are pretty stupid, don't you think?
Boku mo Maikeru-kun mo Jenifā-san mo min'na Amerikajin desu.
Michael, Jennifer, and I are all Americans.
Sūgaku mo rika mo nigate desu.
I'm bad at both math and science.
Sometimes you will find phrases utilizing the pattern X mo X (XもX) to describe how exactly something is so much the case.
Seikō mo seikō, daiseikō da.
What a success, it was a great success.
Man'naka mo man'naka, do-man'naka no kōkyū!
Such a great throw right in the center, smack-dab in the center!
Sometimes the particle mo も describes how an unusual circumstance may also hold too, and in this situation it can be translated as "even." This is often used in set phrases but it is not limited to them.
Saru mo ki kara ochiru.
Even monkeys fall from trees.
Kōbō mo fude no ayamari.
Even Kobo would have a mistake in his penmanship.
※Usually, the particle mo も is not used after the particle wo を; however, you will see the combination “wo mo をも” in contexts such as older literature but also when the speaker is trying to make a point more emphatically, often in an attempt to sound more sophisticated.
Sheru gasu wa kūki wo mo akka saseru mono da.
Shell gas is something that even worsens the air.
Although mo も doesn't combine with ga が or wa は, it does combine with other case particles. As we haven't studied the exact meanings of other particles just yet, only a few examples will be shown here to get an image of what this is talking about.
Nihon e mo ikimashita.
I also went to Japan.
Haha ni mo purezento wo agemashita.
I also gave my mother a present.
Mukō no machi kara mo hi ga miemasu.
Fire can also be seen from the village across.
When the particle mo も is used in a negative sentences, it often translates as "even."
Sono riyū mo shiranai yo.
I don't even know the reason.
Eigakan ni mo ikimasen. Rentaru mo shimasen.
I also don't go to the movies. I don't even rent (them).
Ima mo kawaranai mono
Something that won't change even now