Though these patterns show result, they have their own special nuances. So, even when there is interchangeability, that doesn't mean you are saying 100% the same thing.
～結果 utilizes the word for “result”. It is seen after nouns or the past tense of verbs. What follows is a result and what precedes is a cause. Whether it is in one sentence or two, this is how the pattern works. It is objective and 書き言葉的. It is preceded by verbs of thought/consideration and followed by verbs of result.
I’ve done just what to do, so I will quietly await the results.
2. 消防車など１３台が消火にあたった結果、火はおよそ１時間半後に消し止められましたが、部屋は全焼しまし た。
As a result of 13 fire trucks fighting the fire, the fire was extinguished after approximately an hour and a half, but the room was completely burned.
From the NHK article 県営住宅焼け１人死亡１人重体 on 2013年7月3日 2時11分.
The London Foreign Stock Exchange on the second, against the background of stocks having risen in the New York and Tokyo Exchanges, concerns towards the world economy’s future have somewhat eased, and the trend of buying dollars and selling yes has gradually strengthened.
As a result, the yen exchange rate for a moment dropped down to the low 1$ = 100\ mark after about a month since the first part of last month.
From the NHK article ロンドン市場 １か月ぶり１００円台 on 2013年7月2日 21時36分.
As for this problem, with the indication having come out that the East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster Recovery Budget, through funds the municipalities manages are being used even in projects outside the devastated areas, the government has forwarded investigations into the actual circumstances through the ministries and offices concerned such as the Ministry of Office and the Recovery Agency.
As a result, in the 16 funds that each of the municipalities that have become the object of investigation manage, approximately 1 trillion 150 billion yen recovery budget has been allocated, and the great majority of which has already been administered, but it has been found out that approximately 140 billion yen has yet to be used.
From the NHK article未使用の復興予算 返還要請へ on 2013年7月2日 12時48分.
～うえで works grammaticality just like ～結果. It too is seen after nouns or the past tense of a verb. ～うえで shows a willful aspect in taking the next action based on the results of the present/clause or context. This makes it quite different for all of the other patterns in this lesson. It is preceded by verbs of thought/consideration, and then it is followed by verbs of conclusion. Adverbs frequently used in the first clause include よく and 十分（に）.
I will reply after having sufficiently considered the matter.
I will reply after having consulted in detail with my boss.
ARF, which was opened in Brunei on the second with foreign ministers from 27 international organizations including ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), Japan, America, as well as North Korea participating, adopted the chairman’s proclamation as the meeting’s close. With the chairman’s proclamation, as almost all of the participating nations’ common understanding, it is calling for North Korea to carry out its duties of the six nation conference joint statement, including things such as U.N Security Council Resolution of the past which sought the halt of nuclear tests in North Korea and the abandonment of current nuclear plans by North Korea.
Moreover, it is asserting that “almost all of the participating nations support the efforts towards the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula”.
From the NHK Article ＡＲＦ議長声明 朝鮮半島の非核化支持 on 2013年7月3日 0時9分.
Niigata Prefecture Governor "It’s local neglect"
Niigata Prefecture Governor Izumida demonstrated strong displeasure saying that "there isn't local neglect like this without contact beforehand".
Moreover, he again criticized the position of Tokyo Electric saying, “Tokyo Electric aren't even taking responsibility for the accident, not completely making public the conditions of the TV meeting at the time of the Fukushima No. 1 Reactor accident and with the inspections being insufficient. This is not the stage to debates about the restart of operations”.
The Nation Too to Strive for Receiving Understanding
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Motegi, stated while in Vietnam “I would like for a strict and speedy hearing in the Nuclear Energy Regulations Committee on the phase of having sent an application. Moreover, once safety is confirmed, not being left up to Tokyo Electric, but as a nation, I want us to come to the front and strive to seek the understanding of the municipalities.
From the NHK article柏崎刈羽原発 安全審査の申請決定 on 2013年7月2日 15時12分.
Chief Cabinet Secretary Suga held a lecture in Tokyo and suggested that they look forward to the election battle carrying the economy’s recover as their top priority, with both the Liberal Democratic Party and the Justice Party securing the majority including those not up for reelection in the House of Councilors election as a minimal goal.
Moreover, Chief Cabinet Secretary Suga, in regards to the policies they're calling for in the election stated, "As for Constitution revision, it is the LDP’s party platform, and we are to call for it in this election battle as well. However, our current priority is on the economy no matte what we hear from citizens or others", suggesting that carrying the economy’s recover is their top priority.
From the NHK article 菅氏「過半数目標 経済前面に」on 2013年7月2日 15時12分.
挙句, normally negative, is used with a noun or the past tense of a verb to show that one spends a lot of effort on something but something else comes out of it with the outcome often being a last resort. 挙句 is close to "after a great deal of" and is often used with the adverb 散々meaning "repeatedly". Verbs that precede it entail thought/consideration, but they are mainly verbs with negative outcomes such as 悩む, 迷う, 議論する, 文句をいう, etc. Passive and causative expressions are also common.
Expressions found in the latter clause involve result just like ～結果. However, again, it is usually negative, and even if the result isn't totally bad, it definitely gives the sense that it’s not worth much. With that said, you are not likely to see it much in the news as the news is typically written in an objective fashion.
Orthography Note: 挙（げ）句 can also be spelled as 揚（げ）句.
After a great deal of repeatedly arguing, she just left!
It's said that after three men had gotten drunk that they crashed into a high-voltage line and were electrocuted to death.
After a great deal of various studies, I decided to enter a local college (although I tried for more).
After trying my best, I just gave up.
すえ is noun that literally refers to the “end/tip”. You see it in temporal phrases such as 7月の末. However, it also shares something in common with the speech modals of this lesson. Used in the same fashion as them, it shows a temporal conclusion in which “after a certain course of events has run its way, in the end it becomes as such”.
14. 夜を徹して議論した｛△ 結果・〇 挙句・Xうえで・〇すえに｝、白紙に戻してやり直すことになった。
After having debated all night, it became decided that we should redo and go back to the drawing board.
From 中級日本語文法と教え方のポイント by 市川保子.
From this sentence it resembles 挙句, but it is actually more objective. It also doesn't have to seem negative. What they do share, though, is that they demonstrate a long trial of sorts.
"Komaki, can you play any instrument?", Mouri asked as she lay on the hard futon. After having ran away a long ways, we were renting a room on the shore in a town to the west we didn't quite know. Mouri was working at a rubber factory at the edge of the town. It might have been the day she returned from a certain night shift once every three days. The outside from the window was beginning to brighten up.
From 溺レる by 川上弘美.
16. あの国は長年の紛争を経た｛〇 結果・△ 挙句・Xうえで・〇 すえに｝、ようやく反対デモもなく自主選挙を行なうことができた。
That nation after having gone through years of conflict was able to finally carry out voluntary elections without even any opposition demonstrations.
Finally: やっと, ようやく, ついに, Etc.
There are many adverbs that are translated as "finally". If there are so many words, there must be differences between them. The sentence above shows a very typical instance of ようやく, but the sentence would sound unnatural to various degrees if you were to replace it with another synonymous phrase.
やっと: After one's effort over a long period of time, something finally/narrowly realizes. やっと is a positive and shows considerable satisfaction. Whether it is a place, time, or money, after a narrow situation, there is a final realization/conclusion. If the speaker has gone through much trial/struggle in achieving a result that is positive yet contrary to original expectation, やっと can't be used.
I'm finally able to sleep with ease.
I've finally finished it all.
Slang Note: In slang it can be seen as やっとこさ.
ついに・遂に: At the final stage of something, X either realizes or it doesn't. The situation one has been in has lasted a long time (like やっと), and there is the potential that what you wanted ends up not happening at all (not like やっと). ついに can rather coldly state non-realization. If it is a positive outcome, it may have a light sense of happiness or relief. However, although やっと doesn't foster an indifferent attitude, it usually implies that the speaker wished the good outcome would have come earlier.
The police finally arrested the criminal.
ようやく・漸く: やっと and ついに capture the moment of realization, but ようやく places stress on the process. ようやく shows a positive, objective evaluation of planned change, and it expressed an effort that one has waited on. This is in relation to time and not something like money or physical labor. ようやく is inappropriate in showing one's 本音 due to its objectivity.
I think I finally understand.
Fall has finally come.
I have finally gotten used to group living in the dormitory.
I finally became relieved, and while I lit my cigar, I first started to raise my languid eyes and glanced at the little girl's face, who was sitting in the seat in front of me.
From 蜜柑 by 芥川龍之介.
Form Note: It can be seen as ようよう・漸う in older language. ようやっと, the fusion of やっと and ようやく, also exists and is essentially the same as やっと with the time nuance of ようやく.
とうとう・到頭: This is similar to ようやく in that it places stress on the process rather than instant of realization. It is either used in positive or negative situations to show that after repeated efforts and over the course of a long time, an expected change either does or doesn't happen. This is subjective rather than objective. If you were to use it or ついに instead of やっと in something like あっ、やっと電車が来た!, your statement would be quite hyperbolic.
They finally left.
Then, in no time at all, the girl caused a fierce noise to flutter about, and at the same time the train plunged into the tunnel, the glass door that she had tried to open finally fell and plopped down below.
From 蜜柑 by 芥川龍之介.
辛うじて: This is a literary word that shows an extremely close-call situation in one's favor. So, it is often translated as "barely", but it is much like やっと. But, it doesn't have the same requirement that it have the prerequisite of something going as planned. かろうじて can easily be used to refer to future event. If it is an nonfactual probability, it can't be replaced with やっと or ようやく. It can be if it is a factual probability, but in this case ついに and とうとう aren't good because they aren't used with future expressions.
I narrowly got a hold of it.
いよいよ・愈(々)・ 弥弥: This can be very similar to the above when it shows that after some time, an event reaches an important situation. In this sense it is very similar to ついに. It is not emotionally cold like ついに. However, it is more objective than the other options like やっと. It also has other meanings such as "more and more" in which it implies increase in momentum.
Her wrinkle covered cheeks at last became red, and the occasional sound of her sniffling her nose along with the sound of her breath running out restlessly entered my ears.
From 蜜柑 by 芥川龍之介.
There are four simple meanings of 始末. The first is to mean "beginning and end". It may mean "end result" in a negative fashion. As a noun or a verb with する, it means "clean up/get rid of". Lastly, it can mean "thrifty" as a noun or as a verb with する.
He gave the story of it (an event) from beginning to end.
He, in the end, had to run away (from there).
Illegal overstaying in a country results in deportation.
A thrifty person