1. 荒し （あらし） means "troll".
An internet troll
2. 顔 （がお）shows the "face" or "look" of something.
|笑い顔||Smiley face||得意顔||Triumphant look||訳知り顔||Know-it-all look|
3. 掛かり （がかり） attaches to nouns to show that something is dependent on or resembles something. With verbs it means "with these course of events".
After going to this course of events, it became so.
It's only a one-man job.
A voice resembling theatre
A position dependent on one's parents.
4. 掛け （かけ） attaches to nouns and the 連用形 of verbs. With verbs it shows that something is in the middle of happening/being done. With nouns, it means "rack".
In the middle of collapsing
5. 掛け （がけ） with nouns means "to put on". With intransitive verbs it shows something is in the middle of doing something. With 一人（ひとり）, 二人（ふたり）, etc., it shows how many people can sit. With numbers it means "tenths".
Tucking up sleeves
I came by the store on the way home.
I just saw a sofa that could fit 10 people!
I bought used books 40% off.
Seven person seat
Culture Note: In the majority of trains in Japan, seats often sit seven people and three seats separated by doors on both sides of the train is the norm.
6. がし attaches to theto create phrases that push an opinion.
|これ見よがし。||Out of display.||聞こえよがしに言う。||Talk at someone.|
7. ～方（かた） → Lesson 81.
8. 柄 （がら） attaches to nouns to show a suitable condition.
Please take care of yourself during these times.
The morning is early for the nature of this business.
9. 絡み （がらみ） is used after words expressing age or price to show "about" or "around". And, it's after nouns to show there is a close connection with something.
It's an international problem concerning welfare.
Problems concerning batteries
19. 1万円がらみの品物だ。 （ほとんど使われていない）
These are goods around 10,000 yen in worth.
10. 刻み （きざみ） is equivalent to "-毎に" and "-置きに" and means "every...".
Every 5 centimeters.
The fee goes up every 100 yen.
11. きって attaches to nouns and shows what is the most...in something.
He is the brightest student in our school.
Great actor of our time.
12. 競 （くら） attaches to the 連用形 of verbs to show some sort of contest.
13. ぐるみ shows that the subject is completely included.
The entire family dealt with the difficult problem.
25. 村ぐるみ ＝ 村人が全員で
Forming a crowd
14. くんだり, which comes from the word 下り, attaches to names or words of place to show a far distance from a certain reference point. This is not widely used.
I ended up going as far as Aomori.
I'm very grateful that you have come all this way to the country for us.
15. 気 （け） attaches to nouns and the stems of adjectives/verbs to show sensing of a certain condition.
I'm tired of it.
To feel chilly.
To be overwhelmed.
An abandoned town.
16. 子 （こ） shows a child of a particular nature. With either nouns or the 連用形 of verbs, it shows a person of a certain occupation. When attached to a place, 子 shows birthplace. This suffix also helps create female names.
A person of the Meiji Period
He's a popular writer, isn't he?
17. -っこ is a colloquial version of すること. It's often attached to verbs in the potential form and then followed by ない to explosively show incapability. It may also show competition with the 連用形 of verbs, smallness with onomatopoeia, and make slang variants out of common nouns.
He'll never understand.
To become used to.
I got first in a race.
Let's have a staring contest!
Look, the typhoon leveled the school!
He'll never be able to speak Japanese.
I can't sing!
I'm so hungry!
Sentence Note: The last sentence would be most likely used by someone really thin.
|Corner||隅 → 隅っこ||Edge||端 → 端っこ||Root 根 → 根っこ|
18. ごかし ＝ one is actually planning one's own interests while pretending the other.
Self-aggrandizement under pretense of aiding another
Acting nice while actually playing the devil's advocate.
19. -越し means "over" and may be used in a sense of doing something over some sort of distance such as one's shoulders or in a time sense where it shows a condition continuing throughout a given time period.
To talk out the window.
To look over one's shoulders.
We've known each other for over 10 years.
20. ごっこ ＝ game of mimicry.
|鬼ごっこ||Tag||電車ごっこ||Make-believe train||お医者さんごっこ||Playing doctor|
21. ごと attaches to nouns showing inclusion in "all".
Eat the apple with all of the skin.
To shovel off all clothes.
All of the shackles will just fly away into the endless sky.
22. 沙汰（ざた） is often after nouns and the 連用形 to mean "affair" or "gossip".
|色恋沙汰||Love affair||取り沙汰||Current gossip||警察沙汰||Police case|
23. 様（ざま） can attach to nouns to show a certain direction. After the 連用形 of a verb, it either shows the course of a condition or action or give a sense of "just as...".
A cowardly way of living
I have three classes back to back.
54. 逆さまの夢へと堕ちる。 （Unvoiced example)
To fall in a backwards dream.
The trees fell down sideways by the wind.
Reading Note: 横様 ＝ よこざま・よこさま
I turned and glared at him.
"Ah! Kocho-san's coming home, Kocho-san's coming home!", Kanami yelled full of joy as she sprang up, and just as she dashed out of the room yelling "Ko-chan", she continued with a lively laughter singing:
Rain fall, rain fall!
Mom has come to see me with her umbrella
How happy am I!
Splishy splishy splashy splashy
Her warm, young, melodious singing voice went all the water to the entrance.
From 童謡 by 川端康成.
Passage Note: That song is the first part of a famous 童謡 (children's song) called あめふり. The onomatopoeia is rather unique to the song itself, so it is rather difficult to adequately translate them into English.
24. しな attaches to the 連用形 of verbs to mean "at time of doing...".
If you drink sake when you're going to sleep, you'll get a hangover.
I got a call on my phone when I was leaving.
I fell at the time I was crying.
The man right by just halfway opened his eyes leaving Yokohama, and he continued to carelessly doze.
From 山の音 by 川端康成.
25. 凌ぎ（しのぎ）= "to tide over" and is idiomatic in translation. It follows nominal phrases.
To kill time
To get over at half measures.