第316課: Miss out: ~残す, ~漏らす, ~損なう, ~そびれる, ~損じる, & ~逃す

      In this lesson, we will learn about even more compound verb endings. As the title indicates, all of these endings are in reference to missing out on doing something. 


(のこ)す means "to save/leave". In compound verbs it builds upon this meaning to show that "something important was not done before leaving". 残る, the intransitive form, can similarly appear with some words to imply a sense of "being left" in a certain state. 

1. その仕事はやり残したんです。
    I left the work undone.

2. ソーダを残しておいて。
    Save me some soda.

3. 動物の数え方は食べ残る部分からきたと思われる。
  It is believed that the method of counting animals comes from the parts left over after eating (them).

4.  食べ残りを排水口に捨てない方がいいと聞いたんですが、本当ですか。
     I heard that it is best not to put scraps in the disposal, but is this true?

5. お客さんが食べ残しを持ち帰って体調を崩した場合、飲食店はどのような責任があるのですか。
In the case a customer brings home left overs and gets ill, does the food establishment have any responsibility? 

Word Note: 食べ残り and 食べ残し both exist, but the former refers to scraps that aren't suitable for eating later. The latter is "leftovers". As a society, Japanese people don't like for there to be leftovers. Businesses are weary of customers getting sick from leftovers and customers feel a responsibility not to order more than they can eat. Nonetheless, more places in Japan are beginning to add guidelines as to how to make sure leftovers can be taken home safely. 

6. 食べ残したご飯を翌日に食べるようにすればよいのでは?
    Wouldn't it be good to try to eat left over meals the next day?

7. 食べ残して捨てるのはもったいないです。
     Throwing away what you have left over from eating is wasteful. 

8. 飲み残したワインを味を落とさないで保存する方法はありますか。
    How do you preserve left over wine without losing its taste? 

9. 耐乏生活に生き残る。 
    To live through austerity.   


 らす means "to leak" and is in compound verbs to show that one ends up not doing something important due to carelessness. 

10. 必要なことを言い漏らす。
      To end without saying something necessary. 

11. うっかりして年月日(ねんがっぴ)を書き漏らした。
      I carelessly forgot to write down the date. 

12. 大事なところを聞き漏らした。 
      I failed to listen to a crucial part. 

Contrast Note: The last word is not exactly the same as 聞き逃す, which implies that you didn't listen to the entire thing.  


     そこなう means "to spoil/ruin" and what happens is always the subject's fault. In compounds it shows what one missed out on doing, and it may be interchangeable with the suffix ~そびれる. Another similar ending is ~そんじる which may show that one misses out on or fails in doing something. ~のがす is also possible. 

漢字 Note: 損なう is often left in かな. 

13. ボールを()(そこ)なう。
      To miss the ball.

14a. 彼()()ったことを()()なった。
14b. 彼の言ったことを聞きそびれた。(More natural)   
      I missed out on what he said.

Variant Note: 聞きそびれた would have been a better choice in the sentence above. This is because 聞きそこなう can also mean "mishear".

15a. 健康()(そこな)った。
15b. 健康を損なった。(Normal spelling)
15c. 健康を害した。(Alternative phrase)
        He ruined his health.

16. いてはこと仕損しそんじる。(ことわざ)
      Haste makes waste.
      Literally: Rushing fails things.

Orthography Note: 仕損じる means "to blunder". It is often spelled as し損じる, but it can also be seldom spelled as 為損じる.  為る is actually how you would spell する as in "to do" in 漢字. The normal spelling 仕損じる is actually ()().

17. 手紙()()()じた。
      I made a mistake in writing the letter.

18. 言()()ずる。 (Old-fashioned)
      To miss out saying.

Word Note: The following is normally 言い()なう or 言い()ねる. 

Variant Note: Remember that ~じる and ~ずる are variants of each other and that both are voiced forms of する. ずる is typically rarer and more formal. 

19a. 遊()機会()を{()した・逃してしまった}のは残念()です。(Most natural)
19b. 遊びそこねたのは残念です。(OK)
        It's a shame that he missed out on playing.

20. 死()()なって生き恥をさらす。
      To fail to die and live on with one's shame exposed. 

21. 寝坊ねぼうしたとき、学校に来る前に何をしそびれましたか。
      What did you not do when you came to school after having overslept?

22. 演説えんぜつのがす。
      To fail to listen to the speech.

23. 見逃()してしまうよ。
      You’re missing it/you're going to miss it! 

Orthography Note: For the meaning of "ruin", 損なう may also be written as 害う. However, because this is not a reading in the 常用漢字表, unversed speakers will not know how it is read and assume it is an error. As such, it is best to only recognize it for when it does show up in literature.

Speech Style Note: ~損ずる is the same as ~損じる etymologically, but the latter is slightly less literary but still unlikely to be used in the spoken language.