In this lesson, we will learn about even more compound verb endings. As the title indicates, all of these endings are in reference to missing out on doing something.
残す means "to save/leave". In compound verbs it builds upon this meaning to show that "something important was not done before leaving". 残る, the intransitive form, can similarly appear with some words to imply a sense of "being left" in a certain state.
I left the work undone.
Save me some soda.
It is believed that the method of counting animals comes from the parts left over after eating (them).
I heard that it is best not to put scraps in the disposal, but is this true?
In the case a customer brings home left overs and gets ill, does the food establishment have any responsibility?
Word Note: 食べ残り and 食べ残し both exist, but the former refers to scraps that aren't suitable for eating later. The latter is "leftovers". As a society, Japanese people don't like for there to be leftovers. Businesses are weary of customers getting sick from leftovers and customers feel a responsibility not to order more than they can eat. Nonetheless, more places in Japan are beginning to add guidelines as to how to make sure leftovers can be taken home safely.
Wouldn't it be good to try to eat left over meals the next day?
Throwing away what you have left over from eating is wasteful.
How do you preserve left over wine without losing its taste?
To live through austerity.
漏らす means "to leak" and is in compound verbs to show that one ends up not doing something important due to carelessness.
To end without saying something necessary.
I carelessly forgot to write down the date.
I failed to listen to a crucial part.
Contrast Note: The last word is not exactly the same as 聞き逃す, which implies that you didn't listen to the entire thing.
損なう means "to spoil/ruin" and what happens is always the subject's fault. In compounds it shows what one missed out on doing, and it may be interchangeable with the suffix ～そびれる. Another similar ending is ～損じる which may show that one misses out on or fails in doing something. ～逃す is also possible.
漢字 Note: 損なう is often left in かな.
To miss the ball.
14b. 彼の言ったことを聞きそびれた。(More natural)
I missed out on what he said.
Variant Note: 聞きそびれた would have been a better choice in the sentence above. This is because 聞きそこなう can also mean "mishear".
15b. 健康を損なった。（Normal spelling)
15c. 健康を害した。(Alternative phrase)
He ruined his health.
Haste makes waste.
Literally: Rushing fails things.
Orthography Note: 仕損じる means "to blunder". It is often spelled as し損じる, but it can also be seldom spelled as 為損じる. 為る is actually how you would spell する as in "to do" in 漢字. The normal spelling 仕損じる is actually 当て字.
I made a mistake in writing the letter.
18. 言い損ずる。 (Old-fashioned)
To miss out saying.
Word Note: The following is normally 言い損なう or 言い損ねる.
Variant Note: Remember that ～じる and ～ずる are variants of each other and that both are voiced forms of する. ～ずる is typically rarer and more formal.
19a. 遊ぶ機会を｛逸した・逃してしまった｝のは残念です。(Most natural)
It's a shame that he missed out on playing.
To fail to die and live on with one's shame exposed.
What did you not do when you came to school after having overslept?
To fail to listen to the speech.
You’re missing it/you're going to miss it!
Orthography Note: For the meaning of "ruin", 損なう may also be written as 害う. However, because this is not a reading in the 常用漢字表, unversed speakers will not know how it is read and assume it is an error. As such, it is best to only recognize it for when it does show up in literature.
Speech Style Note: ～損ずる is the same as ～損じる etymologically, but the latter is slightly less literary but still unlikely to be used in the spoken language.