We have gone through all the phrases for liking and loving, but now it's time to go over hatred. Many of the phrases will look very similar, and unlike the previous phrases for liking and loving, there isn't much nuance splitting to worry about. However, like always, you should pay attention to detail.
The most basic word for "to hate" in Japanese is 嫌いだ. 嫌い implies that you hold a bad impression of something, and the disdain that you hold is a reaction to this. You can't use 嫌いだ to reject a request.
I hate writing essays.
I have to run every day, but I really hate it. It's really tough, and I'm always sweating. My whole body gets drenched, and I end up smelling.
Part of Speech Note: The expression comes from the verb 嫌う, which means "to detest", but unlike it, 嫌いだ and 大嫌いだ are used as 形容動詞.
大嫌い is the extreme of hating, as is implied by the prefix 大-. This is an emphatic version of 嫌いだ. Both come from the verb 嫌う.
Are there any sports that you hate?
To fret over people who you hate.
I hate skunks.
Likes and dislikes
I hate people that can just flat out lie in your face.
She really hates baseball.
Word Note: ベースボール is the same thing as 野球, but it not used nearly as often.
嫌いがある is often used to show bad tendency. See more examples in Lesson 201.
Have you ever dated a girl who picks her nose in public?
That bad kid that likes to hit frogs with sticks just killed a frog in front of the other elementary kids. I have no idea what we're going to do with him.
嫌う can be translated as "to hate". This hate is a very strong dislike, and although 嫌いだ comes from it, 嫌う is still more powerful. This hate implies that you don't want to deal with whatever or whoever you hate.
Why do people despise contradiction?
Even if you were to hate the bully, that does nothing, no?
Don't hate me.
On the flip side, though, it can even refer to animals and plants disliking something. So, vampires hating the sunlight would be a great example. When used with non-living things, it shows that two things are not compatible such as fire and water.
Books hate moisture.
Vampires hate sunlight.
It is also found in the phrase 嫌わず, which uses the old negative auxiliary verb ～ず, which functions as ～ないで here. In this phrase, you just do something without even giving a dime about the place or person you're dealing with.
They say that if you spit carelessly anywhere in China that you get arrested.
Etymology Note: 嫌う potentially comes from the verb 切る + the Old Japanese auxiliary verb ふ, which was very similar to ～ている. It survives in many words, but this one is not completely verified. However, it makes perfect sense. Proof for this can be found in the fact that its original meaning was 除き去る. Exclusion is closely related to cutting off. It also used to mean to separate/distinguish and avoid. This is still seen rarely in Modern Japanese in ～の嫌いなく.
いやだ, written in 漢字 as 嫌だ or 厭だ, is very similar to 嫌いだ, but there are considerable differences. いやだ refers to situations in which you reject a person's request or invitation or a certain circumstance.
No way am I going at a time like this.
"Senpai, is it alright if I go home first?" "No way".
20. 息子がいやなことばかりするから、 どうしつけたらいいか分かりません。
Because my son keeps on doing bad things, I don't know how to discipline him.
No, that's bad. Please quit it.
I've gotten to the point that it's awful to be touched by cats.
Continue to work calmly even if you feel uncomfortable.
When you use いやだ in not accepting a certain person or thing, it is far stronger than 嫌いだ. For example, consider the following.
I really don't like Kenta.
Kenta is just no good.
The first sentence does show hatred towards Kenta, but the latter sentence is to the point that you don't even want to recognize his existence. It's almost like a euphemism for wishing he'd no longer live.
You can't just use 嫌だ for referring to what someone else hates/dislikes. Instead, you have to couple this with the auxiliary 〜がる. The nominal form of the causative form of 嫌がる, 嫌がらせ, actually means "nuisance/annoyance". 嫌がらせをする happens to mean "to annoy (someone)".
People that only handle jobs that everyone else dislikes are pitiful, aren't they? I sure couldn't do any of it.
I think you need to first think really hard about the feelings of the person you annoyed.
This phrase is meant to show that something is impossible or incompatible in light of the circumstances. It's often objective, although objectivity is not necessarily something natives think about when they use this word.
Is it really bad in the first place for the meaning to be doubled?
"Senpai, is it alright if I go home first?" "No, that won't work because we still have things to do".
Kenta is bad.
Sentence Note: This sentence is a qualification of some attribute to Kenta, not necessarily that you hate him.
Rarely spelled as 悪む and the primary verbal form of 憎い, this verb shows that you think something or someone is detestable. This verb can also be used to show abhorrence to an abstract thing such as an ideology or war.
To detest the president.
To detest communism.
To detest war.
It's only natural to detest a love rival.
35. 罪を憎んで、人を憎まず。（Set Phrase)
I hate sin, not people.
憎らしい points out the (condition of the) person that makes you mad. Ironically, it is not always the case that this word has negative connotations.
The broken down, slang filled speech of young people is detestable.
That person who let my beloved dog die is detestable.
To say hateful things.
39. 彼女はあまりにもかわいくて憎らしくなってきた。(More positive than negative)
She's just so cute that it's gotten to me.
Unlike the opposite of love, 憎い expresses emotion of feeling displeasure, irritation, envy, etc. towards/about someone. It is you yourself who feels this discomfort. It also happens to have the old meaning of "ugly", which is now typically handled by 醜い except in rare circumstances.
I hate prime ministers who allow injustice.
41. 坊主憎けりゃ袈裟まで憎い。(Set Phrase)
He who hates Peter harms his dogs.
Literally: If you hate a bonze, you also hate his kesa.
I really hate my wife.
You really do say some provoking things.
Let's drive all those ugly XX pigs out of Japan!
These words are stronger versions of 憎らしい.
He viciously kicked that annoying cat, but shortly afterwards, that cat died from its injuries, and he was filled with remorse.
That person just really infuriates me.
Rather than using 憎み, which is a word but not used as a noun, as the nominal form of 憎む, 憎しみ is typically used. The verb form 憎しむ did exist at one point, but it is no longer used.
To feel hatred/enmity.
To fuel the flames of hatred.
This 気 idiom just shows that you just can't stomach something. It is rather colloquial, so there are plenty of instances you can use it in speaking.
I can't stand being looked down at (by others).
I just can't stand that guy.
This word is "hatred" by definition, and it is rather cruel hatred. People tend to not use this word correctly, and one of the most egregious misuses happens to be the following.
51. 嫌悪感を感じる X/△
To feel hatred.
The problem is that the phrase is a 重複表現. Double phrases are almost always frowned upon in Japanese, and this is especially bad. however, all you have to do to make this phrase correct is replace 感じる with another verb like 覚える and 持つ.
To feel disgust towards people who only say things that are difficult to understand.
To despise oneself.
It's only human nature to hold hatred against the murderer of your own mother.
Everyone in the world should abhor cruelty.
毛嫌いする is commonly used in the spoken language. This word, though, has the particular nuance of hating something for no particular reason.
It's best to hate lazy people.
Do you detest intellectuals?
Those that hate Murakami Haruki's novels for no reason are stupid, aren't they?
Person Note: 村上春樹 is one of the current most renowned authors of Japanese literature.
Although not necessarily hatred, 不愉快, the antonym of 愉快, shows that something is not pleasant at all and can put you in a bad mood. The reason why it is mentioned is because in contexts like the last example, it really is akin to "hate". Most of the time, it is typically equivalent to "disgusted" and "unpleasant". This word is also used frequently in the spoken language.
I was a bit disgusted.
You must recognize the unpleasant reality.
Speaking to unpleasant people is awful, isn't it?
He's really a pain, that Kuroda.
This word is rather literary, but it shows a very violent hatred, which is why it might be left more so to writing because of its potency.
To stare down with eyes full of revulsion.
To hate racial discrimination.
To fuel the flames of abhorrence.
You must control your feelings of hatred in public.
You can't get caught up in anger.
To end up beating up and kicking people in a fit of mad rage.
This is by all means a literary word, but one usage other than "abhor" that this word has is "to be taboo", which is quite unlike the rest although semantically related.
Bonfire of the damned
It is best for the citizens to abhor the notion of revolution.
Even Americans know about the Japanese hating the number four because it correlates to death.
Word Note: 忌み嫌う is also possible and means "to detest/abhor", too. Just view it as a combination of 忌む and 嫌う.
厭う means "to begrudge", but its negative form means "willing". Since 〜ない is used, this positive definition might be a surprise. This is the negative of “to begrudge”. So, it is literally "to not begrudge in". This is normally spelled in かな. It is also important to note that this word is very literary. In fact, any word with 厭 is going to be uncommon and literary.
She is willing to lend a hand.
He is willing to answer to our requests.
Hate not the world.
Please be careful to not cause yourself any harm.
Like its verb form 厭う, 厭わしい is very literary. Its meaning is similar to it as it means "detestable/deplorable". The following sentence would be a good way to intelligently insult someone with class in one’s word choice.
Just looking at that face is deplorable.
This is a very literary word meaning "detestation". The first sentence shows just how complicated a context with this word may be. It is important to note, though, that in reality when a word of hatred is used in a piece of literature, the surrounding context is likely to have more hate related words.
I always insisted on what was completely mutually inseparable from my own side and overwhelmingly righteous, and I naturally held hatred and gazed upon my enemy's bottomless evil, that ambition, the cruelty, the treachery, and the endless numbers of conspiracy in abhorrence.
Gaze of detestation