第162課: Food

Japanese food, 日本料理にほんりょうり和食わしょく・日本食, is one of the most interesting things about Japan. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to go to a Japanese restaurant (日本料理屋) and talk about what's in your food, how to ask for your food, etc. 

At a Restaurant

 お品書き (Menu)

お好み焼き Okonomiyaki 700¥     天丼 Tendon 780¥     寿司 Sushi 1400¥   すき焼き Sukiyaki 1200¥
刺し身 Sashimi 1350¥     狐そば Kitsune soba 700¥   狐うどん Kitsune udon 700¥ サラダ Salad 400¥
お握りずし Onigirizushi 1000¥    ざるそば Zaru soba 550¥     しゃぶしゃぶ Shabushabu 1250¥


ビール Beer 310¥  お茶 Tea 300¥    水 Water 100¥    コーク Coke 250¥
Qoo  300¥     焼酎 Shochu 300¥     ミルク Milk 250¥ 


アイスクリーム Ice cream 240¥     チョコレートセーキ Chocolate shake 250¥
アップルパイ Apple pie 300¥     チーズケーキ Cheese cake 350¥  

Cultural Differences: In the average Japanese restaurant, when food is done, it is sent out immediately regardless of whether or not the other people's food in one's party is ready. Refills are rare. Coffee might be refilled, but you may get charged double. When sitting down you are given a wet towel called a おしぼり to wipe your hands, a menu, and some tea and water.  

 Useful Expressions

1. メニューを()せてください。          
    Please show me a menu.

2. お(なか)()きましたか。      
    Are you hungry?

 Bad まずい Sour すっぱい Sweet 甘い Bitter 苦い
 Weak; thin 薄い Strong; thick 濃い Hot 熱い Cold 冷たい

3. Xがおいしそうですね。   
    X looks good. 

4. 安()いレストランです。      
    It's a cheap restaurant.

5. じゃあ、それにしましょう。          
   Well, let's go with that.

6. のどが(かわ)きました。            
    I'm thirsty.

7. 寿司二人前すしににんまえねがいします。              
    Sushi for two please. 

8. (お)酒()がお()きですか。         
    Do you like sake?

9. お()()は?

10. 蛋白質たんぱくしつ = Protein                      炭水化物たんすいかぶつ = Carbohydrates                     脂肪しぼう       = Fat  

11. 相席あいせきいします。
      Please let another party sit with you.

Culture Note: You may be asked this in Japan in inexpensive restaurants when it's really crowded and there's really nothing that you can do about it.  

     Please wait one moment. 

13. いらっしゃいませ。何名(なんめい)ですか。こちらへどうぞ。 
      Welcome. How many will there be? Please follow me.  

14. ビールをもう一本()ください。
      Give me one more beer please.

Note: Beer in this case is most likely 缶ビール.

15. てんぷらを一人前()()いします。
      Tempura for one please.

16. 火()にかける。
     To put on the stove.

17. 胡椒こしょうくわえてあじをつける。
      To put in flavor by adding pepper.

18. お勘定かんじょうは○○になります。
      Your bill comes out to XX.

19. お()たせしました。(Waiter)
      I'm sorry for having made you wait. 

20. 「ここでお()()がりですか、それともお()()りですか」「ここで食べます。」
      “Is this to eat here or to-go?” “For here”.

21. すし()()きましょうか。
      How about going to the sushi shop?

22. たいてい()()みますか。
      What do you generally have to drink? 

23. ご注文はお()まりですか。
      Have you decided on what you will order?

24. 私()(はら)わせてください。
      Allow me to pay.

25. はい、全部(ぜんぶ)でX(えん)になります。
      Yes, this comes out to in total to X yen. 

26. 何()に{しましょう・なさいま}か。
        What shall I get you?

27. お勘定(かんじょう)をお(ねが)いします。
      Please bring us the bill.

28. 「お(ちゃ)をもう一杯(いっぱい)いかがでしょうか?」「ええ、いただきます」
       “Can I get you another glass of tea?” “Yes, thank you”.

29. コーヒーのお()わりはいかがですか。
      Would you like a refill of coffee?

Culture Note: When you are given something to eat or drink, say "いただきます". When leaving, you say "ご馳走(ちそう)(さま(でした))". The hostess may respond with "お粗末(そまつ)さまでした.

30. お水をください。()
      Water, please.

Female Speech Note: お is more frequently used by women in common items such as these. Similar words include お(にく) "meat" and お(ひや)"cold water".

31. どこかおいしいレストランを(おし)えてください。
      Could you tell me of delicious restaurants anywhere?

32. ずいぶん色々()なものがあるんですね。
      There are a lot of items. (In reference to the menu)

 More Key Words

 ナイフ Knife フォーク Fork スプーン  Spoon はし Chopsticks
 (お)さら Plate ナプキン Napkin ウェイター Waiter ウェイトレス Waitress

Rice and Noodles

  Rice is the most important food in Japan. ごはん, cooked rice, is even synonymous to "meal". こめ is uncooked rice. Many things are made from rice.

(): The Japanese Drink

      (), also known as 日本酒(にほんしゅ), is a rice-based alcoholic beverage. It's served at room temperature or heated. It can be served in お猪口(ちょこ),small cylindrical cups, (さかずき) which are flat saucer-like cups, or (ます) which are wooden box-like cups. One shouldn't fill one's own cup: it should be done for you. To ask:

33. (お)()をもう一杯()ください。
      One more cup please.

     Be sure to hold your cup to the 徳利(とっくり)--the flask--as a gesture of acceptance. 乾杯(かんぱい) (Cheers)!

More Rice

(どんぶり): 丼 is a bowl of hot steamed rice with toppings.
煎餅(せんべい): Rice crackers in all shapes and flavors. 
チャーハン・炒飯: Chinese fried rice.
(にぎ)り: Balls of rice with filling.
(もち): Rice cake.
すし: すし is vinegar rice topped/mixed with seafood & vegetables. There are many kinds.

Noodles 麺類(めんるい)

うどん (Japanese): うどん is a wheat-flour noodle. There are several kinds of dishes.
そば (Japanese): そば is buckwheat. It is either served chilled with a dipping sauce or in a hot broth.
素麺(そうめん) (Japanese): そうめん are white thin wheat flour noodles dipped in めん(つゆ) and served cold. The noodles are often placed in a flume in cold water and the diners have to catch them.
ラーメン (Chinese): ラーメン is made of Chinese-style wheat noodles and is served with a meat and often flavored with soy sauce or 味噌(みそ) (soybean paste).



 Deep-fry 揚げ物(あげもの) Pot cooking 鍋物(なべもの) Stews 煮物(にもの)
 Grilled 焼き物(やきもの) Soups 吸い物(すいもの) Pickled 漬物(つけもの)
 Stir-fried 炒め物(いためもの) Sashimi 刺し身 Soup (from juice) 汁物(しるもの)

Word Note: 漬物つけもの also refers to salted foods.

河豚(ふぐ) (Sashimi): The フグ, puffer fish, is poisonous yet delicious. It is prepared with extreme caution to remove the toxic areas. The Emperor is forbidden to eat it. The liver is apparently the most delicious part, but it's also the part most likely to kill you. フグ is a delicacy (珍味(ちんみ)). 

ギョーザ (Yakimono): Chinese ravioli-dumplings usually filled with pork and vegetables.
味噌汁(みそしる) (Shirumono): みそ soup is made out of 出汁(だし), stock, and みそ paste.
(うなぎ) (Yakimono): ウナギ is freshwater eel. Saltwater eels are called 穴子(あなご)
しゃぶしゃぶ (Nabemono): しゃぶしゃぶ is made with thinly sliced beef. It is usually served with 豆腐(とうふ), 白菜(はくさい)(Chinese cabbage), 春菊 (edible chrysanthemum leaves), 海苔(のり) seaweed, onions, 人参(にんじん) carrots, 椎茸(しいたけ) and えのき(だけ) mushrooms, etc. 
(とん)カツ (Agemono): Breaded, deep fried pork cutlet.
()(とり) (Yakimono): Skewered chicken, it can refer to skewered food in general. 
()()き (Yakimono): 照り焼き is grilled, broiled, or fried meat glazed in sweet soy sauce. 
てんぷら (Agemono): Deep-fried prawns and vegetables.
()(なべ) (Nabemono): Seafood hot pot.
雑煮(ぞうに) (Shirumono): A soup with (もち) common in New Year's.
豚汁(とんじる) (Shirumono): Like みそ soup with pork.
梅干(うめぼし) (Tsukemono): 梅干 is pickled (うめ), which are like plums.

唐揚からあげ (Agemono): 唐揚げ is bite-size chicken, fish, etc. deep fried.
(この)()き (Yakimono): Consists of a flour batter, トロロ, (みず)/出汁(だし), (たまご) egg, and shredded キャベツ(cabbage), etc. It is often flavored with mayo.
すきやき (Nabemono): Thinly sliced ビーフ (beef) and vegetables cooked in 醤油(しょうゆ) soy sauce, 出汁 sugar, and sake. It's dipped into bowls of raw egg.
芋煮(いもに) (Suimono): A thick potato soup.
薄作(うすづく)り (Sashimi): Finely sliced raw fish. Plate is decorated with shredded 大根(だいこん)  Japanese radish, lemon slice, ginger, and a 大根(だいこん)-chili mixture with scallions in the center.
弁当(べんとう) (Miscellaneous): Assorted lunches.


 アンキモ Anglerfish liver カラスミ Salted mullet roe
 このわた Salted sea cucumber entrails ウニ Salt/pickled sea urchins 


 お茶 (Green) tea 酒 Alcohol ワイン Wine
 ビール Beer ウォッカ Vodka コーク Coke
 抹茶 Powdered green tea
 麦茶 Barley tea 紅茶 Black tea
 焼酎 Shochu 桜湯 Cherry blossom tea 水 Water
 コーヒー Coffee ミルク Milk ジュース Juice
 アイスティー Ice tea コーラ Cola スプライト Sprite

 Other Unique Drinks

 クー Qoo, a non-carbonated beverage with grape and orange flavors.
 ヤクルト Yakult is a pro-biotic milk-like drink.
 カルピス Calpis is a non-carbonated beverage with a milky taste.
 C.C Lemon A soft drink known for its lemon flavor.
 ポカリスエット A soft/sports drink that has a mild grapefruit flavor.
 ラムネ A soft drink with many flavors.

Word Note: For liquor, "straight" is "ストレートで" and "on-ice" is "水割(みずわ)りで".

Western Food  洋食


 カキフライ Breaded oyster カキエビ Breaded shrimp
 ステーキ Steak ポークチョップ Pork chop
 オクラ Okra アボカド Avocado
 パイナップル Pineapple パパイヤ Papaya
 ネクタリン Nectarine カボチャ Pumpkin
 ハンバーガー Hamburger ビフテキ Beef steak
 ブドウ Grape ブラックベリー Blackberry
 マンゴー Mango キーウィ Kiwi
 プラム Plum ココナッツ Coconut
 オレンジ Orange リンゴ Apple
 ラスベリー Raspberry ブルーベリー Blueberry
 ロースト Roast シチメンチョウ Turkey
 フライドポテト French fries ピザ Pizza
 タコス Taco ベーコン Bacon
 スクワッシュ Squash ハム Ham
 ホットドッグ Hot dog サンドウィッチ Sandwich
 サラダ Salad スープ Soup
 オムレツ Omelet ソーセージ Sausage
 トマト Tomato ピーマン Bell pepper



  デザート (desserts) and おやつ (snacks) are very important, and there is a large variety that you can choose from in Japan. 

和菓子(わがし) (Japanese-style sweets)

 団子 Rice dumplings カキ氷 Shaved ice with syrup topping
 こんぺいと Crystal sugar candy まんじゅう Sticky rice surrounding a sweet bean center 

洋菓子(ようがし) (Western-style sweets)

 カステラ Iberian-style sponge cakes アイスクリーム
 Ice cream
 ケーキ Cake クッキー Cookie

Common Snacks

 ハイチュー Edible chewing candy similar to gum. ポッキーBiscuit stick snack
 うまい棒 Puff corn snacks similar to Cheetos コアラのマーチ Bite-sized cookie snacks 

Seasoning 調味料

 辛子 Spicy mustard 酢みそ Vinegar miso sauce
 ケチャップ Ketchup 二杯酢 Soy vinegar sauce
 米酢 Rice vinegar ふりかけ Dry condiment sprinkled on rice
 しょう油 Soy sauce ポン酢 Citrus-based sauce
 マヨネーズ Mayonnaise みりん Low alcohol rice wine
 めんま From dried bamboo ラー油 Chili-infused vegetable oil
 わさび Wasabi こしょう Pepper
 塩 Salt 砂糖 Sugar
 香辛料 Spices ショウガ Ginger
 カレー粉 Curry powder マスタード Mustard
 ソース Worcestershire sauce 油 Oil/fat

Other Ingredients


 ミカン Mandarin orange アユ Ayu fish
 ナマズ Catfish ヒジキ Dark edible seaweed
 かずのこ Herring roe ニラ Chinese chives
 ナス Eggplant サケ Salmon
 イカ Squid
 ハマグリ Clam
 豚肉 Pork サツマイモ Sweet potato
 梨 Nashi pear 昆布 Kombu
 キュウリ Cucumber
 豆 Beans
 モモ Peach イチゴ Strawberry
 バナナ Banana かも肉 Duck
 インゲン String bean マッシュルーム Mushroom
 ヤマイモ Yam 唐辛子 Chili pepper
 レモン Lemon スイカ Watermelon
 レタス Lettuce ザクロ Pomegranate
 トウモロコシ Corn カブ Turnip
 タコ Octopus クリ Chestnut
 ホタテガイ Scallop カツオ Bonito
 ホウレンソウ Spinach 酢 Vinegar
 パン粉 Dried bread crumbs
 マグロ Tuna
 イクラ Salmon roe 魚肉 Fish
 鶏肉 Chicken ヒラメ Flounder
 イワシ Sardine エビ Shrimp
 アズキ Azuki red beans ショウガ Ginger


Cookware & Utensils 台所用品

  Plate 鍋 Pot ざる Colander
 フライパン Fry pan 布巾 Kitchen towel ふた Lid
 薬缶 Kettle (お)箸 Chopsticks 包丁 Kitchen knife
 ナイフ Knife フォーク Fork スプーン Spoon
 炊飯器 Rice cooker レンジ Microwave ガス台 Gas stove
 まな板 Cutting board 杓文字 Rice paddle 缶切 Can opener
 栓抜き Bottle opener 流し(台) Sink 換気扇 Ventilation fan
 おたま Ladle ポット Thermos bottle