Demonstrative words can't be simply defined as starting with these four sounds in Classical Japanese. So, we will simply refer to them as 指示詞, which means "demonstratives".
There are four different types of 指示詞. This is just like in Modern Japanese; it's just appearance that doesn't make this clear sometimes. These four types differ in terms of distance because they are, again, demonstratives.
|こ||What the speaker has influence over.||As if it is managed by the speaker.|
|そ||Creates an indirect experiential scene.||Necessarily indirectly experienced object.|
|あ||No influence over something now.||Direct experience by the speaker in the past.|
As the title says, this section is about demonstrative pronouns. This section will be dominated by a chart with notes and examples after it. More Japanese is to be implemented in charts, so get ready.
|こ||そ||あ||か （方向・場所・他人）||不定称||わ （自分）|
|限定||こ（れ）||そ（れ）||あ（れ）||か（れ）|| たれ （人）|
1. The れ in the first row is not seen most often in older works.
2. The use of か words for 3rd person is limited. We all know that 彼 means "he" in Modern Japanese, but this is a rather recent development. Words such as かれ and かなた could originally also refer to other people.
3. -ら is like "-abouts". Before the arrival of どこ, いづこ・いづく was just used for the indefinite column.
4. The second person pronoun 其（し） also existed.
5. Of course, not all of these originate at the same time, and not all of them have survived to the present. All of this comes with the course of language. However, when you see one of these, you should have a pretty good idea what it's being used for. Again, some of these are ancient.
6. The words かすか and かそけし share origin with かしこ.
7. In Modern Japanese これの, それの, あれの, and どれの are not used as alternatives to この， その， etc. They are very limited. かれの VS かの is more productive. The difference can be ascertained from the chart. The first is now used to mean "his". The second is used to mean "that" which is distant/unfamiliar to both the speaker and listener(s).
8. この, その, etc., were deemed as two words put together, a demonstrative word + の.
9. こなた、そなた、Etc. could also be used as direction words.
10. For those that can be used as pronouns, the 1st person pronouns such as こちら can refer not necessarily to oneself but someone in one's in-group just like in Modern Japanese. So, rather, you can view the demonstratives こちら and そちら referring to one's in-group and out-group respectively.
11. Of course, there are other demonstratives in Japanese. Another includes 遠近(をちこち), which is equivalent to あちらこちら.
Man over there, come here!
From the 更級日記.
My own sisters
From the 源氏物語.
I know not where people who are born and die come and go.
From the 方丈記.
4. 原文：篭毛與 美篭母乳 布久思毛與 美夫君志持 此岳尓 菜採須兒 家吉閑名 告<紗>根 虚見津 山跡乃國者 押奈戸手 吾許曽居 師<吉>名倍手 吾己曽座 我<許>背齒 告目 家呼毛名雄母
訓読：篭もよ み篭持ち 堀串もよ み堀串持ち この岳に 菜摘ます児 家聞かな 告らさね そらみつ 大和の国は おしなべて 我れこそ居れ しきなべて 我れこそ座せ 我れこそば 告らめ 家をも名をも
Hey, young girl with the basket, the wonderful basket, and the hand shovel the wonderful hand shovel picking grasses, tell me where you live but not its name. For I rule all of the land of Yamato filled with the spirits of the Gods. Though I rule everything, show me where you’re from, your house and your name.
From the 万葉集.
That flower has ended up disappearing!
From the 枕草子.
Word Note: か words are weaker in their demonstrative nature, and かの can be interpreted as being "usual/certain", which would make this sentence all the more exclamatory.
Who would know?
From the 古今和歌集.
When he looked at it, it was a person of around three sun.
From the 竹取物語.
Word Notes: A 寸 is approximately three centimeters. Also note that it is often easy to translate それ as "it", but remember in Japanese that these demonstrative words have a dimension of distance in their interpretation.
Of all living things, which does not recite poetry?
From the 古今和歌集.
Word Note: 生きとし生けるもの is actually still used as a set phrase today.
Hearing him say, "This is the capital bird"...
From the 伊勢物語.
Please come in here.
From the 菅原伝授手習鑑.
They ended up passing the day there.
From the 更級日記.
Word Note: Even self-reflexive pronouns like おのれ・おのが are demonstrative pronouns.
Demonstrative adverbs have much more variation. Today, there is こう, そう, ああ, and どう. However, way back when, there was かく, さ, しか, と, and いか along with many other expressions based off of them, many of which are still used today.
|斯く||こう||かく → かう → こう|
|然||そう||さ → さう → そう|
Not all phrases are simple translations to modern Japanese. Some are worded differently today. There are also many phrases with 指示副詞 ＋ あり in Classical Japanese. Some of these become 連体詞, 接続詞, and other 副詞.
How embarrassing and awkward it must have been.
From the 平家物語.
Life is in heaven. So, we must only wait for that time.
Even so, we still haven't received our rewards.
From the 竹取物語.