This lesson is about four adverbs which all translate roughly to "dare to" in the sense of pushing for something to happen.
The verb 強いる means "to force/compel/coerce." When its te-form is used adverbially, it may be literary translated as "by force." How "dare" comes into the fold is that it is often used when the speaker feels bad about pushing through with an action despite difficulty, resistance, or opposition.
I wouldn't force a kid by telling them to do it.
(The coach) pressed the athletes to bear responsibility quite a bit.
(He) managed to pull through by pushing the impossible.
Even the right thing is coercion if you force it done.
Rail has been forced to struggle from being pressured by how many busses and aircrafts there are.
It is most commonly seen in the phrase 強いて言うなら・強いて言えば, which translate to "if I must say." Of course, any similar verb would be interpreted in much the same way.
There aren't any particularly problems, but if I had to raise one, it'd just be there being more mosquitos than the city, I feel.
If I had to give an example, it'd be like this.
If I must say, it would be your retainer Hiroshi...
If you were to be compelled (to command me), I would drink this and die right here, right now.
If I must say, handling the cold has become a major issue.
Although there are hardly any conditions, if I had to mention any, it would be these two points.
Although very similar to 強いて, 敢えて gives the impression that the speaker still dares to go along with doing something.
I wouldn't dare criticize the president.
You dare have the courage to try again?
When you are daring to do something, 敢えて is there to also imply that it really isn't necessary, which makes it different than "deliberately."
You dare say?!
Dare I say it, I hate ##.
Dare I say it again.
If I had to say, I'd recommend the katsudon, I guess?
It may also be more appropriate to interpret it as showing deliberate action that seems unexpected and/or counterproductive.
There are also voices that are questioning whether it's even necessary to set out to censure a president who has completed his term.
Also unlike 強いて, 敢えて can also be synonymous with 必ずしも to mean "not necessarily/particularly." For this meaning, the verb must be in the negative.
Just because Taylor's Japanese is good, it's nothing to be be particularly surprised about. That's because his wife also speaks Japanese.
It is not particularly worth going to.
It is not particularly necessary to tell your students about the extent of the test.
It's not for any health reason; I just don't particularly drink.
Sometimes, 敢えて may be more on the lines of 少しも/全く.
It would not be an exaggeration whatsoever to call it a first in the world.
The te-form of 押す (to push) in the sense of "to compel" may be used adverbially to mean "by compulsion" or "in defiance/spite of." Its use in this capacity is limited to certain set phrases.
I ask of you in spite of myself.
There was meaning to heading (there) in spite of my cold.
Are there countries even in Europe where people go to work despite of a fever?
Curriculum Note: See also Lesson 303.
This adverb is used to indicate a sincere desire/request that the speaker knows is unreasonable or difficult to be brought into fruition. This is how it may take on the meaning of "dare," but translating into English becomes more circumstantial when it is used to make a
Orthography Note: This adverb is usually written in Hiragana.
This is my strong wish (which I know may be hard to make happen).
28. たって言おうなら・・・ (Stiff literary tone)
If I dare push myself to speak of it...
It's not that I desire it no matter what.