第169課: Conjunctions

     Conjunctions 接続詞せつぞくし connect sentences together in Japanese. They don't normally connect clauses, however. This is quite unlike English, which often doesn't like some conjunctions being used at the beginning of a sentence. Instead, Japanese does a good job distinguishing between conjunctions, which is the topic of this lesson, and conjunctive particles.

Some conjunctive phrases are made of multiple phrases. This makes things a bit more complicated, especially when things look very similar minus one thing. Also be aware that all of the conjunctions may not be expressed with either conjunctions or conjunctive particles and thus will not be mentioned in this lesson.

In this this lesson conjunctions are labeled with the following terms. This lesson does not aim to teach you all conjunctive phrases in Japanese, but you will definitely learn what they are, how they are used, and plenty to practice with.

 Function   Abbreviation
 Parallelism 並行 へいこう 並
 Alternation 代替 だいがえ
 Addition 添加 てんか 添
 Change 転換 てんかん 転
 Concession 逆接 ぎゃくせつ 逆
 Sequence 連続 れんぞく 連

Single Word Conjunctions

  さて Now 添 加えて Moreover
 逆 しかし However 逆 一方 On the other hand
 添 しかも Moreover 連 従って Therefore
 代 即ち In other words 逆 ただし
 添 そして And 並 及び And
 転 そもそも In the first place 添 なお Still
 添 且つ Also 連 よって Thus

Usage Notes:

1. さて is used to change the topic of conversation. It may also be an interjection similar to "well" in English.
2. しかし is not used as frequently as the English equivalent "however". It is used, first and foremost, to contrast two different things.
3. When (その)一方いっぽう(では)  is used with 他方たほう(では) before it, in which case その may never precede it, the interpretation changes to "on the one hand". This extended pattern is not likely to be used in the spoken language.
4. Due to it looking like しかし, しかも is often misused by students. It is just like そのうえに.
5. そして shows that something additionally happens.


1a. あるいは本当()かもしれません。
1b. 恐(   おそ)らく(それが)本当()かもしれません。(More natural) 
      Perhaps that's true.

2. 明朝十時集合()。ただし()場合()中止()
    A 10 o’clock meeting tomorrow, but cancellation in case of rain.

3. しかも、あられが降ってるんだよ。
    Besides, it's hailing!

漢字 Note: あられ may rarely be spelled as霰

4. そりゃそもそもの始まりだった。
    That's all it was to begin with.

5. 命は天に()り。()らばただ時を待つのみ。(Old-fashioned)
    Life is in heaven. So, we just wait for the time.

6a. よく学び()つよく遊ぶ。(Not an imperative; Set phrase; old-fashioned)
6b. よく学びよく遊べ。(Imperative)
      Study well and play well.

7. お金は(すなわ)ち幸福と考える。
    To think of money, in other words, happiness.

8. しかし、景気(けいき)はまだ回復(かいふく)しない。
    However, the economy hasn't recovered.

9. {さて・さあ}、始めよう。
     Well, let's begin.

10. だったら、手伝(てつだ)おう。
    If that's the case, I'll help.

11. ただし雨の場合は延期えんき
      However, it will be postponed in the case of rain.

12. 彼女は歌人(かじん)であり、かつ小説家であります。
     She is a tanka poet, and she is also a novelist.

13. あいつはそもそも殺すつもりはなかった。
      He didn't have an intention of killing in the first case.

14. 0たい0の均衡きんこうやぶる。
      To break a tie of 0-0.

Word Note: 対 is the equivalent of "versus". 

15. ず日本へ行きました。そしていろいろなところへ行きました。
      First of all, I went to Japan, and I went to a lot of different places. 

16. よって(くだん)(ごと)し。(Set phrase; Formal)
      Therefore, it is as the aforementioned statement.

Multiple Word Conjunctions

  そのうえ Besides 連 そのうち Some day
 代 または Or 添 ところで By the way
 連 何故なら Because 連 そればかりか  Besides
 逆 だから Because 連 さもないと  Otherwise 
 添 それで And so 連 それから Then
 代 それとも Or 連 それなら If so
 添 こうして With this 添 そうして With that
 代 もしくは Or 逆 それどころか Rather
 並 並びに Both...and... 逆 それでも Nevertheless
 連 それ故 Therefore, thus 連 それにしても Even so
 連 故に Accordingly 連 それにつけても Anyway
 逆 だが But 連 それはさておき By the way
 連 それに Moreover   

17. それゆえ、銃撃戦じゅうげきせん死者ししゃ百人以上のぼります。
      Therefore, the casualties from the shoot-out will climb to over 100.

18a. れはえずあふしているにもとのではない。
18b. 行れはえずして、しかももとのにあらず。(Original Classical version)
        The flow of a passing river endlessly flows; hence, it is not the original water.

19. その()わりに、()()った。
      Instead, I bought a book.

20. ところでお仕事()は?
      By the way, your job is?

21. それにつけても()()すのは()()時代()だ。
      Anyways, that reminds me of the good old days.

22. 新語並しんごならびに外来語がいらいごかんする資料しりょう調しらべる。
      To examine data about both neologisms and foreign expressions.

23. そういえば、久実()さんはどうしてるんだろう?
      Now that I think of it, I wonder what Kumi is doing?

24. 日本語()には同音異義語(どうおんいぎご)()い。{()に・それゆえ・よって・そういうわけで・そのようなわけで・従って・このた め・そのため・だから・このことから}、漢字()()く。
Japanese has a lot of homophones. Therefore, you write with Kanji.

Historical Note: The introduction of 漢字 caused Japanese to have a lot of homophones.

Word Note: From the single example above, there are a lot of possible conjunctions out there that relatively mean the same thing. However, what are their exact differences?

  • ()に shows that due to the fact it's after, the following is as effect.
  • それ()に shows that the stated matter is reason for the next case stated after it.
  • よって states that the previous sentence as the reason or evidence. 
  • そういわけで・そのようなわけで = With that reason
  • 従って = Therefore; so; consequently.
  • このため・これゆえに = Points that as the goal or reason.
  • そのため = このため. This is a rare occasion with これ are interchangeable それ.
  • だから = So; because
  • このことから ≒ With this

Even in English, there are several interchangeable but slightly different phrases that can be used. The specifics and impromptu nature of speech at a given situation is the ultimate determining factor. Some of these are more formal or casual then the others. So, that has a lot to do with which is used. 

25a. だから()わないことじゃない。
25b. だから()わんこっちゃない。(Slang/very casual)
        I told you so.

26. その結果(けっか)試験(しけん)()かった。
      Because of that, I passed the exam.

27. それはさておき、東京に引っすんだ。
       By the way, I'm moving to Tokyo.

28. それにしても{どれも・いずれも}(けっ)して完璧(かんぺき)じゃないね。
       Even so, nothing is perfect, you know?

29. しかしながら、予算(よさん)がかかりすぎる。
      However, it is too much for the budget.

30. 我思われおもう、あり。
       I think; therefore,I am.

31. そればかりか動物()()された。
      Besides that, even the animals were killed.

32. それどころか、もう20歳()です。
       Rather, he's already twenty.

33. その結果試験()()ちた。
       And thus, I failed the exam. 

34. さもないと警察()()ぶぞ。
      If you don't, I'll call the police.

35. 度々()インフルエンザに市民の半分もしくは全員(ぜんいん)かかって(とこ)につくこともある。
      Often, (the city) also has times where half or all of the citizens are down with influenza.

36. それなら、いつも学校おくれるのはどういうわけですか。
      If that's the case, how is it that you're always late to school?

 それで, それに, それから, & そして

   Many people confuse それで and それに. それで shows that what was stated before is the reason or cause for what follows while それに shows another additional fact or situation. Also, if the previous facts were positive in nature, so should the additional information. This is the same for negative things too. そこで is also similar to それで, but it is specifically used to when you know in detail the reason for what follows. The previous context is very concrete, and this is not always the case with それで. そこで can also be used to mean さて, and this is something それで never means.

Other related conjunctions include それから and そして. The former is used to mean "after that/then" showing chronological order of events. The latter is the generic "and".

37. 韓国語()面白()いです。それに、(やく)()ちます。
      Korean is interesting. Moreover, it's beneficial.

38. 「ロッテリアは値段も安いし、おいしいんです」「それで人が多いんですね」
      "Lotteria is cheap and delicious" "So, that's why it's crowded." 

39. きのう風邪()を引きました。それで、今日学校()()んだんです。
      I caught a cold yesterday. So, I stayed away from school today.

40. 昨日()授業(じゅぎょう)のあと公園()()きました。それから、三時間()ぐらい友達()()をしました。
      Yesterday, I went to the park after class. Then, I talked for about three hours with friends.

41. 私()おととし五月()卒業(そつぎょう)しましたが、それからずっと仕事()()しています。
      I graduated in May two years ago, but I've been searching for a job ever since. 

42. 「このごろどうですか。()しいですか」「宿題()がたくさんありますし、それに、(ひま)時間()はほとんどありません」
      "How have you been lately? Are you busy?" "I have a lot of homework, and on top of that, I barely            have any free time".

43. 「あなたのアパートは、どんなアパートですか」「()のアパートはきれいなところですし、それに家賃(やちん)()いの          で、()みやすいです」
       “What kind of apartment do you have?” “My apartment is a pretty place, and since the rent is cheap,         it's easy to live there”.

Phrase Note: When using それに, all the parts of the sentence must either have positive or negative connotations but never both! 

44. 「あなたの()んでいる()はどんな()ですか」「人口()()なく()しい()です。それに、雰囲気(ふんいき)のよいところです」
       “What kind of town is the town that you live in?” “It's a small, beautiful town. Moreover, it is a local             with a good atmosphere”.

Word Note: () can replace 人口() above, but it is not the best choice of the two. 

45. 「日本語()勉強()はどうですか」「宿題()簡単()ですし、それに日本人()毎日会話()しております」
      “How are your Japanese studies?” “My homework is easy, and I talk to Japanese people every day”.

 読み物: アイヌ語を守ろう!

This is an example of a small speech in Japanese. Read through the text and answer the questions that follow. Conjunctions will be in bold. No English will be given. You are free to use previous lessons and dictionary resources to understand the text. 








1. What is the theme of this speech?
2. Why is Ainu important to protect according to this person?
3. What are some examples of Ainu influence in Japanese?
4. What has become of the Ainu speaking population?
5. What is being doing to protect Ainu?
6. What is the presenter majoring in?
7. What is language linked to?
8. Is it still likely Ainu will die out?