The patterns in this lesson deal with compare and contrast. Although not near as similar to each other as topics in other lessons, you still need to pay attention to detail so that you don't confuse them with each other.
Also ～と比べて, ～に比べると, ～に比べ, ～と比べ, and ～と比べると, ～に比べて means "compared to". It is a simple comparison. Without ～て, of course, the pattern becomes more literary.
It's hot outside, but, moreover, in contrast, it's cold inside.
This book compared to the one I read yesterday is completely boring.
He looked younger beside his younger sister.
The ratio of male and female students is 2 to 1.
Word Note: The last example is shown to give other similar words with the character 比.
～に引き換え is used to show a sharp contrast in which something is greatly better or worse than something else. This can only go after nominal phrases, so you have to nominalize verbs and adjectives if you want to use them together.
The apartment that Kenta is living at is new and wide. By contrast, my place is old, small, and also far from the train station.
In sharp contrast to people of his same age, he is very smart and has made a lot of wonderful achievements.
In sharp contrast to the size of a planet, Pluto is very small.
反する means "contrary" and に反して means "contrary to/against".
Succeeding against one's expectations is always a good thing isn't it?
Against the will of God, humans are slaying each other.
It was contrast to our expectations.
The Secretary of Defense made a report contradictory to the facts.
まして is an adverbial phrase that shows something is beyond the degree of the norm, past, other things, or the present situation. If the sentence is negative, of course, you say the opposite. ～にもまして takes this back to a verbal phrase with the same purpose.
You may also see 況や, which is a contraction of the verb 言う, the auxiliary verb ～む, and や, which equate to something on the lines of いうまでもなく. This phrase is typically seen in negative sentences to mean “let alone”.
He can't even read Japanese. Much less write it or speak it.
She can hardly jog, much less being able to run.
The heat is far more severe than even last year.
He can't really see, much less being able to read.
I would help an enemy if her were to be in distress, much more a friend.
It’s useless much less with kids.
Recently, my memory has gotten worse than it was even before.
This shows that something has not reaching past a certain level, but it is a little below.
Not that it'd have to be every week, but I'd like to at least go to the movies once a month.
Not that I won't go if it doesn't turn out to be clear weather, but I'd like it to not rain.