Adverbs (副詞) modify verbs or adjectives, and although adverbs may show up in various places in a sentence, they are typically used at the beginning of a sentence. This isn't a rule, and you still see adverbs just about anywhere. It is simply a trend that you will become familiarized with.
Adverbs come from various sources. However, not every kind of adverb will be discussed in this lesson, and we will continue learning more about adverbs in consecutive lessons.
Most adverbs come from nouns. This sometimes makes it hard to tell when an adverb phrase is actually being used as a noun or not, but we'll learn more about how to discern between them. You've actually already gotten used to such words. Temporal words and counters are great examples of things that can be nouns or adverbs.
Only a handful of adverbs are true adverbs--もう (already). A "true adverb" can never be used as nouns, and not surprisingly, they don't appear to come from nouns at all.
Below are some of the most common adverbs in Japanese. Before we get to example sentences, we'll need to take into account the notes that follow the chart.
|At that time||その時||A little||少し、ちょっと||Sometimes||時々|
|Immediately||すぐに||Fairly; quite||かなり||Almost|| ほとんど|
|Again|| また||Completely|| まったく||Suddenly||とつぜん|
1. The general reading for 今日 is きょう. こんにち is formal and usually expected if used in formal writing. In general speech, it is usually limited to こんにちは. こんじつ is a rather outdated reading that you should not expect to see.
2. 本日 is read as ほんじつ, not ほんにち. It is very formal and usually treated as a 書き言葉.
3. 明日 is formally read as みょうにち. あす is slightly more formal than あした, but both are common readings in the spoken language.
4. 昨日 is formally read as さくじつ. However, this is usually restricted to very honorific speech or writing. Its normal reading is きのう.
She still doesn't know how to tell time.
Today is particularly cold.
Two ambulances came.
Winter has finally ended.
Pharmaceuticals are currently fairly cheap.
It's a little warm compared to yesterday, isn't it?
Vocab Note: あたたかい is written as 温かい in reference to heat of touch or emotion and 暖かい as in reference to climate, body temperature, and even color. あたたかい may also be あたたかな or even あったか｛い・な｝ in casual speech. Remember that な is used before nouns. As for "hot", 熱い refers to things being hot and 暑い refers to the weather being hot.
Is there a lot?/Do you have a lot?
Grammar Note: たくさん may either be used as a noun or an adverb. Never say たくさんな when using this as a noun quantifier.
もう VS もっと
Both have meanings of "more." The first, though, can be used in the sense of "once more/further" and the second is "more" as in the degree of something. Aside from that, もう also means "already" and "shortly."
8a. もう一回 〇
8b. もっと一回 X
I need more time.
I already ate the sushi.
More money is necessary.
I've already switched to a class above (the previous one).
Just keep on a little bit more.
It has already ended.
Some て phrases are adverbial. These phrases have no "conjunctive" role as the literal grammatical function of て has been lost in them. It is best to treat them as separate words in your vocabulary.
It will take 10 minutes by foot.
That's a new story to me/That's first in my ears.