第297課: むしろ, かねて, さもないと, 況して/況や, たとえ, 強いて, 敢えて, 一旦, & 殊更

     In this lesson we will focus on some important adverbs that deserve special attention.

 むしろ かねて さもないと たとえ 一旦 強いて、敢えて、殊更


     むしろ means "rather". It can be seen in the following patterns. 

 B (という)より(も)むしろA A rather than B
 AというかむしろB A...,no, B
 Bというよりもむしろ not so much B as A

 The segments of the sentence should show parallelism. When you use むしろ with -たい, the translation becomes "prefer" or "would rather". Instead of むしろ, you may see かえって and いっそ which mean "on the contrary" and "better yet/still more" respectively.

1. 彼女()歌手()というよりもむしろ女優()です。
    She is an actress rather than a singer.

2. 僕()外車()よりもむしろ日本製の()()うんだ。
    I buy Japanese-made cars rather than foreign cars.

3. えー、あの子供()利口()というか、いや、むしろ天才()というべきだ。
    Eh, that kid is bright, no, a genius.

4. あまり()きじゃなかった。それどころかむしろ(にく)んでさえいた。
    I didn't really like it. Rather, I just detested it.

5. 辛()()いをするよりはいっそ()んだ()がましだ。
     I would rather die than hold (those) painful memories.

6. 海岸()()くよりむしろ遊園地()()きたい。
    I'd rather go to the amusement part rather than go to the beach.

7. パーティーに行くよりむしろ家にいたい。
     I'd rather stay inside than go to the party. 

8. むしろこちらのほうがいいと()います。
    I think rather that this would be good.

9. かえってかった。
    It was rather good.

Orthography Note: むしろ can be rarely seen written in 漢字 as 寧ろ. 


     かねて means "previously". かねてから means "has always been" and is used with the progressive past tense. ね is another adverb that may be used instead of かねて. You should not replace かねてから with かねがねから. Another equivalent phrase is 前以て. 

10. 以前()から()んでいた。
      It has always hurt.

11. 兼()ねて(から)お()えしたように
      As we have informed you before

12. 前以()()える。
      To prepare beforehand.

13. 次回()前以()電話()してくださいませんか。
      Could you please phone ahead next time?

14. あらかじめ()()んだ名所()()れればよい。
      It would be good for you to visit the name and address you heard of before.

15. お名前はかねて(から)()っております。(Honorific)
      I have heard your name before.

16. かねがね()んでいたことが本当()実現()した。
      The thing that I have been hoping for actually happened!

17. お()はかねがね{伺って・()って}おりました。(Honorific)
      I have already been told about the rumor.

Orthography Note: かねて can seldom be seen written in 漢字 as 予て.


     さもないと in a literal sense means "if you do not do so", but it is normally simply translated as "or (else)/otherwise". It may also be seen as さもなくば and さもなければ. 

18. 出()()け。さもないと警察()(を)()ぶぞ。
      Get out. If you don't, I'll call the police!

19. 7時半()までに()なさい。さもなければ、電車()()れますよ。
       Leave (the house) by 7:30. Or else, you'll be late to your train.

20. そうせよ!さもなくば()ずや命を()おう。(Old-fashioned)
      Do it! If not you will surely lose your life.

21. 水()()めよ。さもないと、旱魃(かんばつ)()こったときに、(のど)(かわ)いて死んでしまうよ
Save up water. Or else, if a drought were to occur, you could dehydrate and end up near to your death.


     して(や) and いわんや mean "much less", and they must be used with the negative. It is normally written in かな.

22. あいつは日本語()()むことすらできない。ましてや書いたり話したりできるわけがない。 
      He can't even read Japanese, much less write it or speak it.

23. 小走()りもろくにできない。()して()れるわけがない。
      She can hardly jog, much less being able to run.

24. 先生「今回のテストの平均点は60点でした。」
      Sensei: "The average for this test was 60"
      A-kun: "Did you get over a 70?"
      B-kun: "No way, I couldn't even make the average, much less get a 70 which is like a hopeless dream"

25. 敵でもっていたらけます。ましてや味方なら当然です。
      I would help an enemy if her were to be in distress, much more a friend.

26. いわんや子供()には無理()だ。
      It’s useless much less with kids. 


     In 漢字 as 仮令 and also seen as たとい in older texts, たとえ is used in the following patterns to mean "no matter" and "even though/so". It may also be seen in "たとえ...たとしても" which means "if any/if I should". 

 たとえ...ても たとえ...volitional + と(も)  たとえ...にせよ

27. たとえ()()っても()かけるぞ。
      I'll go out even if rains.

28. あなたがたとえ()をしようとも支持()しよう。
      I will support you no matter how you do.

29. たとえ()があろうとやります。
      I'll do it no matter what.

30a. 両者()()には、たとえあったとしてもごく(わず)かしか、相違()はありません。(Literary)
30b. 両者の間には、たとえあったとしてもごく僅かしか、()いはありません。(Spoken)
        There is little if any difference between the two.

31. たとえ冗談()にせよ、傷つけるようなことはいうべきじゃないよ。
      Even if it's just a joke, you should not say hurtful things.

32. たとえ()されても信念()()げられない。
      Even if if I were killed, my faith could not be taken away.

33. たとえどんなことがあったとしても
      No matter what

34. たとえどんなに()がよくても、試験()に(は)合格()しなければならないよ。
      No matter how good you are, you must still pass the exam.

Word Note: たとえ may also be replaced by ()しんば. This word, though, is rare.

35a. 縦()しんば失敗()したとしても後悔()はしない。
35b. たとえ失敗したとしても後悔はしない。(More natural)
35c. もし失敗したとしても後悔はしない。
        Even if I were to lose, I will have no regrets.


        一旦 can either mean "temporarily; for the present" or "once". In the first case it shows that some action or progress is currently halted. In the second case it is used at the start of a conditional clause to show an action that is necessary to bring about a certain result. 

36. いったん()めたらやめてはいけません。
      Once you've begun, you mustn't quit. 

37. 一旦()中止()()まっていました。
      It has been decided that we will halt temporarily.

38. 一旦()()しみ
      A fun time

Pronunciation Note: As a noun it can be used in the sense of "once" as in "a time". The pitch when it's a noun is on いった. When it's an adverb, the pitch is on ったん.


     いて, えて, and 殊更ことさら are very similar phrases that need to be addressed together. 強いて is like "by force". This makes sense because it comes from the verb 強いる which means "to force". 敢えて is "to dare/venture". Lastly, 殊更 is "intentionally".

39. 強()いて()えば
      If I'm forced to say something

40. 強()いてと()るなら
      If you insist

41. 敢()えてもう一度()やる覚悟があるのか?
      You dare have the courage to try again?

42. 敢()えて反対意見()()べた。
      He ventured an objection.

43. 私()()くことを()いられました。
      I was compelled to go.

44. {あえて・強いて}()ってくれなくてもいいよ。
      You don't have to bother driving me home.

45. 大統領()をあえて非難()するつもりはないです。
       I wouldn't dare criticize the president.

46. 彼()は{殊更・わざと}嫌()がらせをしていた。
      He was intentionally harassing others.