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第140課: ~慣れる, ~合う・合わせる, & ~切る

This lesson continues on with intermediate compound verb endings. All of these endings attach to the 連用形 of verbs. As examples of this for this section, consider the following. 

 一段  食べ切る  (To eat all) 五段 分かち合う  (To share) する  行動し慣れる (to get used to act)

Grammar Note: 来る can only be used with the following patterns: 来慣れる (to be used to coming to) and 来合わせる (to make one's appearance). If you think about the meanings of these phrases as they are discussed, this will make sense to you. 

~慣れる

 ()れる, an 一段 verb, means "to get used to" and may also mean "to domesticate", which is in essence animals getting used to human control. 慣れる is intransitive and is used as a compound ending to show an inclination to liking or being accustomed to something. 

1. この街には住み慣れました。
    I got used to living in this town.

2. 彼は都市の生活に慣れることができなかった。
    He couldn't get used to living in the city.

3. 通学に慣れるのは重要(じゅうよう)です。
     It is important that you become used to commuting to school.

4. コンピューターは使い慣れるのは時間がかかります。
     It takes time to get used to the computer.

5. 彼は旅慣(たびな)れている。
    He's well-traveled.

6a. 日本料理{は、・を}食べ慣れました。
6b. 日本料理に慣れました。(もっと自然)
   I've gotten used to eating Japanese food.

7. 私は人前(ひとまえ)で話すことに慣れていません。
     I am not used to speaking in front of people.

8. 日本の天候(てんこう)に慣れる。
     To get used to Japanese weather.

9. まだ明るさに慣れてねー。((くだ)けた言い方)
    (My eyes) are still not adjusted to the light.

10a. れた動物を飼っています。(ちょっと変)
10b. 家畜かちくを飼っています。(もっと自然)

10c. 人に(なつ)いている動物を飼っています。
10d. 人に馴れた動物を飼っています。(あまり使われていない)
10e. 人懐っこい動物を飼っています。(もっと自然)
         I am raising tamed animals.

Word Note: The first group of sentences with animals is in reference to larger animals. The second group of sentences refers to raising animals such as dogs and cats. 

11. 寵愛ちょうあいに慣れるのはだめですよ。
      It is no good to be over-familiar with attention.

Orthography Note: なれる may be written as 馴れる when specifically referring to domestication and as ()れる to show the growing of familiarity in the sense of getting over-familiar. A similar expression is 馴れ馴れしい.

~合う・合わせる

合う shows how something "fits". In compounds it shows "to...with each other". So, there is someone else with you doing the same action. Essentially, ~合う shows people doing something with each other--reciprocal action. The object(s) of the sentence must be similar. 

The causative form 合わせる may show that one makes something into one, looks into differences, reciprocally does, or does something all of a sudden.

12. ロミオとジュリエットは愛し合っていた。
      Romeo and Juliet loved each other.

13. さそい合わせる。
      To invite each other.

14. 彼らは宿題を手伝(てつだ)い合った。
      They helped each other with homework. 

15. 犯行現場はんこうげんばに居合わせました。
      I was present at the crime scene.

16. 何時に待ち合わせようか?
      What time shall we meet?

17. 彼と彼女は君が()を歌い合っていた。?
      彼と彼女は君が代を一緒に歌っていた。〇
      He and she sang Kimigayo with each other.

Culture Note(きみ)() is the national anthem (国歌(こっか)) of Japan.

18. 二人で聖書(せいしょ)を読み上げ合いました。
      The two read aloud the bible with each other.

19. 彼らは(おも)いを打ち明け合うだろう。
      They will probably confide their feelings with each other. 

20. ケーキを一緒に{食べましょう 〇・ 食べ合いましょう X}。
      Let's eat cake together.

21. 乗り合わせた乗客
       Fellow passengers

22. 計算を読み合わせる。
      To read out and compare calculations.

23. このドレスはあたしにぴったり{(と)合いますか・ですか}。 (Feminine) 
   Does this dress fit perfectly with me?

24. 申し合わせた通りにしましょう。
       Let's do as arranged.

25. お(たが)いに引き合わせる。
      To introduce to each other. 

26. 警察に問い合わせましたか。
      Did you check with the police?

27. 書類しょるいじ合わせましたか。
      Have you bound the documents together?

28. 布を()い合わせる。
      To sew together.

29. 傷口きずぐちを縫い合わせてもらった。
      I had my wound(s) sewn up.

30. 各種()()わせキャンディーを()いに()った。
      I went to buy mixed candies.

31. それらの糸は()り合わせ(がた)い。
       These threads are hard to twist together.

32. 悲しみを分かち合う。
   To share in the sadness.

Word Note: 分かち合う is typically interchangeable with 分け合う, but it is generally more 文語的. However, in the case of "sharing" non-physical items such as sadness, you should use 分かち合う. 

33. 家族の都合が合うのは今日だけだ。
   Today is only when my convenience matches with my family's.

Word Note: 都合が合う is unavoidable in contexts like these, but it is generally not liked when referring to just one's convenience. In which case, you should say 都合がいい.  

There is also another ending that shows mutual action: ~違える. This sometimes confusingly has a meaning of ~間違える. This is because the verb 違える itself has the following meanings: to not have something be the same; to mess up; to be against a contract; to injure one's muscles. You have to essentially learn on a case by case basis. 

34. 靴を履き違える。
     To mix up shoes.

35. 約束を違える。
     To break one's promise.

Reading Note: This 違える may be read as either ちがえる or たがえる. 

36. 寝違えて、首筋が痛い。
     I got a crick in my neck, and now it hurts.

37. 社長と刺し違える。
     Literally meaning one's company president and oneself are stabbing each other but referring to oneself exposing something about the president and then getting repercussions from him. 

38. 一審を差し違える。
     To overturn the first match decision (and give the win to the other opponent). 

~切る

  ()る means "to cut" and may be used literally and figuratively. ~切る shows that "something is done completely". 

39. 彼は読書に(ひた)り切っていた。
       He was completely engrossed in reading.

40. 紙をはさみで切る。
      To cut paper with scissors.

漢字 Note: 鋏 is not uncommonly used to spell はさみ. 

41. 彼はかの歌手の全ての歌を歌い切った。
     He sang all of that singer's songs completely. 

42. いつかは地球に残っている石油は全て使い切ってしまうだろう。
      The remaining oil on the earth will probably one day end up completely used.

43. ひもを切る。
      To cut a string.

44. 電話を切る。
      To hang up the phone.

45. {手・関係}を切る。
       To break a relationship.

46. 彼がイギリス海峡(かいきょう)距離(きょり)を泳ぎ切りました。
      He completely swam the (entire) distance of the English Channel.

47. 水泳選手は、日本海を一緒に泳ぎきりました。
      The swimmers swam across the Sea of Japan together.

48. ジョーンズ先生は来月までに(やく)10冊読み切っているでしょう。
      Ms. Jones will have probably read around 10 books by next month.

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