第246課: The Particles って, たって, & だって

     In this lesson we will learn about the particles って, たって, and だって which are necessary in improving your colloquial Japanese skills.    

The Particle って


 The Case Particle って: Colloquial Citation

This is a very important feature of casual Japanese. The particle と is very frequently seen as って in spoken Japanese. Although it originally came from the contraction of という, it has since taken on と's function as a citation particle.  

1. 難()しいって()った。
    I thought it was difficult.

2. 負()けたよって()われてもなあ。
    Even if you would have said you lost.

3. お()さんにどうぞよろしくって伝えてくださいね。
    Please say nice to meet you to her mother.

4. 田中()さんって()ってる?
    Do you know Mr. Tanaka?

()にしなくてもいいってことだ。
It's nothing you may need to be worried about.

"...の...の(と)" is used to list things in contrast or emphatically and "...の...ないの(って)" shows excess. As is noted, sometimes using it may be uncommon or even old-fashioned. 

5. なんのかんのと文句もんくをつける。
    To complain of what and that. 

6. 死ぬの生きるのと大騒(おおさわ)ぎだ。
    Dying and living is all turmoil. 

7. うるさいのなんのって、()が聞こえなくなったほどだ。
    It's so loud to the point I've lost my hearing. 

8. 無職むしょくになるの、離婚りこんするの、散々さんざんな目にあったな。(Not so common)
    Becoming unemployed and divorced, I've met a lot of terrible things hasn't it! 

9. 寒いの暑いのと()っていないで、ジョギングは毎朝(まいあさ)しなさい。
    Don't complain about it being hot or cold, you must go jogging every day. 

10. いたいのくないのと、がってしまったよ。(古い言い方)
      It hurt so bad I accidentally jumped up.


The Adverbial Particle って: Emphatic

It takes up the subject with slight exclamation and is equivalent to というのは. It's also used in repeating what someone said. 

11. オレって、なんてバカなんだ。
      I'm such an idiot.

12. 誰()かに出会()える()っていつもこうだ。
      Meeting someone is always the same way.

13. したくないって、どういう()()だ。
      You don't want to do it, what do you mean?

14. 誰()が{殺人・殺人者・人殺し・犯人}()かって、あいつに()まってるよ。
      It's settled that who the, um, murderer is that guy over there.

Word Note: 殺人者() is a rather formal word and not used much in actual conversation, although it is common in books. 人殺()し is a graphic word that bring images of the bloody crime scene. So, it is considered a sensitive word and often avoided. 犯人(), although it only means "criminal", it is the most likely word to use in this situation, and most people would realize automatically that the sentence is about murder anyways. 


The Final Particle って: All of the Above

15. すぐ()れってさ。
      He said like to hurry home.

16. 間()()うだろうって。
      They said they would probably make it on time.

   With a high intonation, it shows confirmation. 

17. 離婚()するんですって。
      You're getting divorced?

18. 病気()だったんですってねー。
       It was sickness, right?

In a downward intonation, it passes down an assertion strongly. It is often used to (re)assure someone like in Ex. 19. 

19. 大丈夫()だって。
      It's OK.

20. きっと合格()するって。
      I'll surely pass.


The Conjunctive Particle って

1. When used with ~た.

  • Even if you; no matter how.
  • っていい, ってかまわない, and って()(つか)えない to show permission.

21a. どう()んだって、()こえない。(Less common)
21b. どれほど()んだって()こえない。
        Even if you somehow shout, he can't hear.

22. どう()えたって、校長()校長()だ。
      No matter how you look at it, the principal is the principal.

23. やったっていいじゃん。
      Isn't it OK to do it?

Grammar Note: When used with ん, って is often changed to て. It's also common as ってー.

The Particle たって

     For the most part, たって is ~た + って. However, there is one usage of たって that makes it unique.


The Conjunctive Particle たって

     Often with a 促音そくおん, it is used as a colloquial variant of the phrase といっても meaning "even if you say that". There are several set expressions that accompany this.

 Tense Meaning
 Non-past Even though (pronoun)...
 Past Even if you (past tense verb)...
 Volitional Even if (pronoun) going to...
 Adjectives Even if you... 

24. ハワイに行こうったって、どこも満員()だよ。
      Even if we're going to Hawaii, everywhere is full.

25. 無()くったって、()きてはゆけるだろう?
      Even if you don't have it, wouldn't you still go on living?

26. そうだとったとしても、そうとまったわけじゃないだろ。
      Even if you thought that, that doesn't mean that it's supposed to still occur that way you know.

Grammar Note: Of course, there are some situations in which たって would be unnatural.  

The Particle だって

     At times だって is merely a combination of だ and って or the voiced version of the particle だって. However, だって is also seen in unique situations. 


The Adverbial Particle だって

1. It presents something with an added feeling of rebuttal in response to an assumption and is equivalent to もまた--"even (does)". 

27. 犬()だってそれくらい()かるだろう!?
      Even a dog should understand that!?

28. 僕()だって(つら)いのだ。
      Even I'm bitter (about it).

29. 乞食こじきにだってぶんはある。
      Even a beggar has one's say.


2. "AだってBだって" arranges like things with the hint that other things are applicable as well. 

30. 学校だって、大学()だって、()じところじゃないか。
      Isn't it the same place, whether it's school or college?

31. ペットを飼うなら犬だって猫だって同じようなもんじゃないか。
      If you're going to raise a pet, isn't a dog or cat the same?

32. イルカだってクジラだって哺乳類なんだよ。
       Whether a dolphin or a whale, it's still a mammal.

33. 子どもだって大人だって遊びたいときは思いっきり遊ぶんだよ。 
      Whether a kid or an adult, when people want to play, they play with all their heart.  

34. 宝石()だって着物()だって()う。
      To buy things whether it is jewelry or clothing.


3. With a feeling of rebuttal and attached to a phrase showing high value, it strengthens the meaning of a sentence and is equivalent to さえも meaning "even also". 

35. うそ(だ)、決定的()証拠()だってあるぞ。
      Lie, there's even definitive evidence.

36. クラスにはピアニストだっているよ。
      There's even a pianist in the classroom.


4. Attached to a phrase showing the "smallest" of something and followed by a negative expression, it is used to show complete negation. 

37. いとこにとってはこんな大学一日()だって我慢(がまん)できないだろう。
      My cousin wouldn't last in this kind of a college for even a day.

38. わずかだってされない。
      Not even a little bit will be forgiven.


5. Attached to an interrogative, it is used to mean "all without exception", and is equivalent to "interrogative + でも". 

39. いつだっていいさ。
      Anytime is good.

40. 誰()だってそんなこと{は・を}したく(は)ないね。
      Nobody wants to do a thing like that.

6. ()だって asks for a reason with a feeling of criticism--why". 

41. 何()だってそんなことをしたんだ。
      Why did you do even such a thing as that?


The Final Particle だって

1. Directly quotes the words of someone of which one thought to be unsuitable and is equivalent to だと.

42. 彼()は、()()さなかったんだって。
      He said, I didn't lend any money.

43. 知()らなかったんだって。
      You didn't know?

44. 遊()びたくないだって?
      You don't want to play?

Phrase Note: This usage is a contraction of だとて.

2. のだって quotes what someone said. 

45. あの田中()さん、()きたくないんだって。
      Mr. Tanaka says he don't want to go.

46. あいつは()るんだって。
      He's coming?


3. Asks about the information of something passed down when attached to a phrase of question or doubt. 

47. 何()だって?
      What was it?

48. 食費()はいくらって?
      How much was the food expenses?

Variant Note: だって may be changed to ですって in polite context.

Exercises

1. Explain how tense affects the usage of the particle たって.

2. Create a sentence using the particle たって.

3. Create a sentence using the particle だって?

4. Compare and contrast an interrogative with だって and でも.