第226課: The Particle と III: と + ...~ない

We will look at yet another use of the case particle と. This one is quite different than all the other usages we've looked at as it behaves more like an adverb than any of the other case particles. So, keep this in mind.

と + ...~ない

と may strengthen negative expressions used with counter expressions and some other adverbs. It is especially common in the phrase 二度と. This usage stresses that things aren't going to be so. Although this usage is classified as a case particle usage, it's easy to view it as an adverbial particle as it is always paired with adverbial phrases (counters). 

1. もう二度とあんなところへ行かない。
       I'm not going to go to a place like that ever again.

2. 3ぷんとかからない。
    It won't take more than 3 minutes.

3. (いのち)は二つとない。
    Life is but once.

4. (なま)ものは3日ともたない。
  Raw foods won't last three days.

5. 一分と待てない。
  I can't even wait one minute.

6. 平穏(へいおん)は3日ともたない。
   Tranquility won't last but three days.

7. 色んな治療(ちりょう)を受けても1週間ともたない。
  No matter what various treatment (I) receive, it lasts but a week. 

8. 時間は一秒とかからない。
  Not even a second will go by.  

9. この数学問題を解くのに5分とかからなかった。
   It didn't take more than five minutes to solve this math problem.  

10. この食料(しょくりょう)では1日ともたない。
   We won't even make it a day with this food.

11. この食料は1日ともたない。
   This food won't make it a day. 

12. 同じものは二つとない。
     There isn't a same thing twice.

13. これは世界に2個もないものですね。
      There is only one in the world.

14. 雲一つとない青空を見上げる。
   To look up at the blue sky with not a single cloud.  

15. 二ヶ月5000円とかからなかった。
   It didn't even cost more than ¥5000 for two months.

16. 下痢(げり)が出るまで1分と我慢(がまん)できない。
   I can't even hold it one minute till diarrhea comes out.

17. こんな機会はまたとない。
   Such an opportunity won't come again.

18. 大失敗は二度と繰り返しません。
   Great failure won't repeat once more.

19. だめだ、何をやっても2日と続かない。
  It's useless, I can't keep going at something for two days no matter what I do.

20. この問題は手計算だと10分かかるが、パソコンに解かせれば1秒とかからない。
   This problem by hand takes 10 minutes, but if you get get it solved by computer, it doesn't even    take a second.  


 も VS と

This is very similar to the particle も, but the particle も emphasizes the greatness of something and can either be used with positive or negative sentences. This is in stark difference with this usage of と which often emphasizes the smallness and often showing intolerance about things. For instance, in 22, the speaker, despite 1 hour being reasonably short for the situation, is not wanting to be patient anymore.  

21. 一時間も待った。
      I waited at least one hour.

22. もう一時間と待たない。
      I won't even wait a minute.  

23. 税金を一円と払わない!
      I won't pay even a yen in taxes!

24. 税金を10万円も払えない。
      I can't even pay ¥100,000 in taxes. 

25a. 誰ひとりと知らない。
25b. 誰ひとりも知らない。

25a stresses the the smallness of the quantity that one/someone either doesn't know more than essentially no one or that no one doesn't know something. 25b is the same but makes a big deal about the situation and is consequently more common than 25a. Say no one knows your new address, if you used 25a in the dialogue, you're just stating that no one knows, but if you say 25b, you're making an issue out of things and emphasizing the situation as a problem. 

Practice: Translate the following. 

1. 彼女ともう二度とキスをしない。
2.  いやだと(いうことを)二度と言わないで。
3. 100分もかかることを知った。
4. 3時間も泳いだのに、全然(つか)れもない。
5. またとないチャンスを逃す人は真摯(しんし)に自分の人生と向き合っていない。 

Key

1. I won't kiss her again.
2. Don't say no/never again.
3. I found out it would take at least 100 minutes.
4. I have no fatigue at all despite swimming for at least three hours.
5. People who miss out on golden opportunities are not sincerely facing their own lives.