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第132課: The Particle より

     In this lesson we will learn how to compare things with the particle より.

The Case Particle より

     より creates a comparison and it translates to "than". There is no change to the adjective in Japanese like there is in English with the suffix -er. As illustrated in the chart, the Japanese word order is still flexible. Notice the differences in word order between English and Japanese. 

 English X is adj -er than Y.
 Japanese X(は・の方が)Yより(か・も) adj.
 Japanese Yより(か・も)X(の方)が adj.

Contraction Note: よりか can be contracted to よか in slang. 

Usage Note: よりか is a くだけた言い方. 

1. このリンゴはあのリンゴより大きい。
    This apple is bigger than that apple.

2. 俺はお前より背が高いぞ。(Rough male speech)
    I'm taller than you are!
 

3. 彼女は臆病者が何よりもいやだった。
    She hated a coward more than anything.

4. 君は誰よりも早く走ったな。(Male speech)
    You ran faster than anyone else, didn't you.

5. 祖父は父よりゆっくり話す。
    My grandfather speaks more slowly than my father.

6. 俺にはあんたよりずっと多くの歌があるんだ。(Rough male speech)
    I have much more songs than you do.

7. 彼女は僕より{4つ・4年・4歳}年下だ。
    She is 4 years younger than me.

8. 昨日よりも今日の方がずっと暑い。
    Today is much hotter than yesterday.

9. あいつは、不良よりマヌケだぞ。(Rough male speech) 
     He's more so a fool than a rogue.

10. 薬を飲むより仕事してくれ!   (乱暴な言い方)
      Work instead of drinking medicine!

11. 彼は僕よりお前を選んだのか。(Male speech)
      He chose you instead of me?

12. ここに残ってるより出て行きたいの?
      You'd rather go than stay?


 より仕方がない

より仕方がない = There is no better choice but to.

13. 「車が故障したんですが」「じゃ、歩いて行くより仕方がありませんね」
       "My car broke down". "Then, there's no other choice but to walk".

14. 「僕、料理は、ぜんぜんできないよ」「じゃ、自分で作るよりしょうがないね」
       "I can't cook at all". "Then, you have no choice but to do it yourself".

15. 「今日の宿題を忘れてきちゃった」「じゃ、早くやりなおすよりしょうがないよ」  
       "I accidentally forgot today's homework". "Then, you have no other choice but to redo it quickly".


2. "From" in the sense of starting, distance, space, or quantity. This is a more polite version of から. 

16. 四時よりも後なら結構です。
      It'll be good if its after 4 o' clock.

17. ホームの白線より内側でお待ちください。
      Please wait inside the white line on the platform.

18. 真ん中より後ろに置いてください。
      Put it behind the middle of it.

20. これより先は立入禁止。
      It's forbidden to pass by from here!

21. 学校は駅より手前にあるのです。
      The school is before the station.

22. 会議は五時より行います。
      The meeting will be held at 5 o' clock.

23. 雪は未明より降り続いています。
      The snow will continue to fall from dawn.

24. 私共は朝6時半より営業しております。
      We are open from 6:30 A.M.

25. 子どものころよりお互いに知っています。
      We've known each since we were children.

26. 羽田空港より出発しました。
      We departed at Haneda Airport.

27. 横浜港より出港しました。
      We departed from Port Yokohama.

28. 吉田さまよりお電話がございました。
      You got a telephone call from Mr. Yoshida.


3. よりほか followed by a negative shows that something is limited due to what precedes より. Because より is still rather formal, you may find situations such as in the second example where simply using ほか is appropriate.

29. どうしても電話が通じない。こうなっては、仲谷君の家へ行くよりほかない。(やや書き言葉的)
I can't get through on the phone no matter what. This being the case, there's nothing I can do besides going    to Nakaya's house.

30. ケーブルカーが故障で動かへん。直るまで待つほかあらへんわ。(Kansai Dialect)
      The tram is out of order due to a collision. There's nothing else to do besides wait until it's repaired.

Exercises

1. What are the possible patterns for the comparative in Japanese?

2. Create a comparative sentence.

3. How do you construct a comparative question?

4. Create a comparative question.

5. How do you create the superlative?

6. Create a sentence with a naturally superlative phrase.

7. Create a superlative sentence with 最も.

8. How do you create a superlative question?

9. Explain when to use which interrogative when creating a superlative question.

10. Create a superlative question.

I'm Moving!

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