Here is yet another particle you can use to list things. It also does other things, though. Listing, as you would imagine, is a case particle usage. After all, that's what と is in this case. And, this usage is specifically seen in between nominal phrases. Notice how the word "nominal" used instead of just "noun." This means that you can link things with や that are grammatically made nouns.
After all, や is a particle. Do you really expect one to have just ONE usage? Its other usages are not as important, and some will be deferred to other lessons. Although the remaining usages discussed in this lesson may seem out of place, since they are relatively easy, you might as well know about them.
や lists things incompletely. This means that there is a sense that there are more related things implied. It may list nouns, phrases, and even clauses like "and", but it more so lists in categories.
We brought candies, drinks, etc. to the picnic.
My home is close to the stations, bus, train, etc., and it's (in) a very convenient place.
Cows and horses graze in grassy places.
Whenever I go to Tokyo, Korea, etc., I go by plane.
To say this and that to get money from one's parents.
Word Note: The か in the above expression is not the particle か. Rather, it can be written in 漢字 as 彼, the same character for "he" and actually has the same origin as かれ. Both are demonstrative words, and in this case, it is being used as an indefinite pronoun.
This classification of や happens to not be as important as the conjunctive usage, which is why more must be said of it.
1. Attached to an adverb and accompanied with a statement of exclamation, it strengthens the meaning of the adverb that it is attached to. This is rather limited, so it is best that you only use this with set phrases and other instances that you see it used in. For instance, the first example has またもや, which happens to be a common set example of this.
I lost yet again.
He was just impatiently tired of waiting for victory.
His words made Sachiko yet again move to tears.
From 冷たい誘惑 by 乃南アサ.
2. やに聞く passes down something while trying to avoid being too affirmative. This や is after the 終止形. It is equivalent to かどうかに聞く, which is what's actually used nowadays.
(I believe) they say there's a witch in this village.
Particle Note: You might be wondering why the や in something like しやしない is not mentioned. The reason for this is that though you see や, this is actually from a slurring of は. So, things like 会いはしない (I won't meet!) can be changed to the more emphatic 会いやしない.