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第36課: The Particle に II 

There is a lot to learn about the particle に. So, instead of having to go through it all in one lesson, this lesson will go over the rest of the basic information that you should know about it.  

More on the Case Particle に

   AをBにする

"AをBにする" is "to make/have A be a B way". You can alternatively see the particle と instead, but the difference between the two is that に shows the endpoint of a duration of some sort whereas と shows the content/substance of a result. This may seem arbitrary, but it will become more important later on. 

"AをB{に・と}する" may also show what someone deems as or decides on. Using と sounds more formal and rigid due to its aforementioned quality. This is most prominently seen in こと{に・と}する.  

This pattern may use the れんようけい of adjectives. In actuality, the に-れんようけい of だ is the particle に. So, for 形容詞 you would alternatively use ~くする, not ~くにする, which would be trying to attach a れんようけい to another れんようけい of another part of speech, which causes problems. This can also be the case for と, which also happens to be the れんようけい of タル形容動詞, an old class of adjectives of limited function. 

1. 殺害事件さつがいじけん小説しょうせつにする。
    To make the murder case into a novel.

2. 音楽おんがくのボリュームを高くする。
    To make the music louder.

3. 彼は彼女を(しあわ)せにした。
     He made her happy.

4.いもうと部屋へやをきれいにしました。
    My younger sister made the/her room clean.

5. 子供こども漫画家まんがかにする。
    To have a kid become a manga artist.

6. 2億円におくえん身代金みのしろきんとする。
     To use 200 million yen as ransom money.

7. 写真しゃしん趣味しゅみにする。
    To do pictures as a hobby.

9. すしを昼ご飯にする。
   To have sushi for lunch. 

10. ポンドを円に両替りょうがえしてください。
      Please change these pounds into yen.

11. いわまくらにしてねむる。
   To sleep with a rock as a pillow. 

Grammar Note: There are instances in Japanese where certain adjective れんようけい do become functional nouns such as 近く (vicinity) and 遠く (afar). This, though, combined with this phrase, which is possible, would not cause any structural problems given the definitions.

Curriculum Note: There will be more things discussed about とする over time. 

  • Shows the standard of action, condition, or state. Ex. "to lack in creativity".
12. 人口じんこう過去かこ年間ねんかんに3ばい増加ぞうかしました。
      The population has increased three times in the last four years.

Word Note: 人口 is either (おお)い or (すく)ない, not 大きい or 小さい. Although the last sentence was different, you definitely need to know this.

13. 夜更よふかしは体によくありません。
      Staying up late is not good for your health.

14. 僕は一日(いちにち)3回(さんかい)散歩(さんぽ)に行く。    (Guy speech)
      I go on a walk three times a day.

15. 私の家は駅に近いです。
      My house is close to the train station.

16. 勝負しょうぶに勝ったよ!
      I won the match! 

Word Note: 勝つ should only be used to mean "to win" when talking about games of some sort. If you want to say, "to win the lottery", you need to say something like "くじがあたる".

  • Shows what brings about some sort of measure, feelings, situation, or work. It is "by" as in "to be...by..." and the "from" in receiving. 

17. ひろしにしばしばはらを立てる。
      I frequently get angry at Hiroshi.

18. きみ同情どうじょうする。
      I sympathize with you. 

19. 僕は祖母そぼにお小遣こづかいをもらった。
       I received some spending money from my grandmother. 


 More Usages

  • Shows direct time. Although true, it is not used after 今日, 去年, 翌年, 来月, etc. 

20. 学校は毎朝(まいあさ)8時15分に(はじ)まります。
   School begins every morning at 8:15.

21. 会議かいぎは2時に終わります。
      The meeting will end at 2. 

22. 私は五月の終わりに大阪(おおさか)滞在(たいざい)しました。
      I stayed in Osaka at the end of May. 

  • Creates pairs with a deep connection. It's often in set phrases. This is also actually used in ordering items as well. 
23. 新郎しんろう新婦しんぷ
      A bridegroom and a bride.

24. おに金棒かなぼう
      A demon and a metal club.
 
25. 多勢たぜい無勢ぶぜい
      To be outnumbered.  

Definition Note: 多勢 = "a lot of people"; 無勢 = "few people".  

  • Verb in れんようけい + に + same verb creates a special emphasis. The base form of this pattern may be in the non-past form, but in actual practice, the final verb is basically always in the past tense. The grammar pattern itself is usually used in the written language.

26. 待ちに待った。
      To wait and wait. 

27a. 赤ちゃんは泣きに泣いた。(Slightly literary)
27b. 赤ちゃんは大泣きしていた。 (More natural)
       The baby cried and cried.

I'm Moving!

I will moving the think tank, which is myself, to a new location this weekend and will be low on funds for a while. New lessons are still being made, but any donations at this time would greatly be appreciated.
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