The particle まで often goes hand in hand with から, with it being the "to" in "from X to Y." Don't let classification confuse you as this particle is either a case or adverbial particle.
Pronunciation Note: Do not pronounce this like the English word "maid". Don't even think about it. It's just so bad that it could cause a Japanese's ear to bleed. Seriously, don't.
The particle まで is most commonly seen in the pattern から...まで, which means "from...to...". This can be used to refer to temporal, location, spatial, or quantity boundaries. This pattern can be used in situations like "from 1 to 3 o' clock," "from the car to the street," or "from 1 meter to 4 meters."
まで is the equivalent of "to/until/till." This particle is seen a lot after nouns and temporal adverbial nouns like 今. However, it may also be seen after verbs but never in the past tense.
|With Nouns||N + まで||明日まで; 京都まで; そこまで; 1リットルまで|
|With Verbs||Non-past V (連体形) + まで||終わるまで; 消えるまで; 歌い始めるまで|
Tense Note: Do not use it with the past tense. This doesn't make sense because "until" is describing an event that has yet to actually happen. It's illogical to use the past tense which refers to something already done/taken place.
I work from nine to five.
I was raised in Rome until I was nine.
I was living in America until recently.
The free time until work starts is wonderful!
Eat to the last grain.
Until when are you going to be here?
I plan to live in Austin until June.
I'm going to go to the university for a little bit and come back!
To push a key in until there is a click sound.
10. きょうまでよく耐えたな、俺。 (Casual, male speech)
I've endured pretty well thus far...
"Where are you going?" "No where particular"
Culture Note: In Japanese you may be asked by people as a gesture where you are going, and you may respond in this manner. You are not obliged like you would be to Americans to tell exactly where you're going.
Be careful in adding the particle に to まで. までに = "by (the time)", which is quite different. This can be seen after stuff as simple as 一時. So, 一時までに ＝ by 1 o' clock. It could also be after the non-past form of a verb, such as in 死ぬ（とき）までにやりとげる = to accomplish by (the time) one dies. Note that you can also easily add とき in case this makes things easier. This pattern shows the time for which something is to be realized.
To read three books by midnight.
To sleep until the sun rises.
I have to go to the post office by tomorrow.
Grammar Note: ～ないといけない is a "must" construction. We will formally study it in Lesson 102.
For your information/reference
Particle Note: This phrase is so common that it might as well be viewed as a set phrase. It is a little more polite with に. The role of まで(に) loosely falls under the usages described thus far. The idea is that the speaker is trying to indirectly suggest a reference, and if the listener gets to the point by which it would be useful to use, that person can do so.
I have come by to say hello and introduce myself.
Culture Note: This phrase is often said when simply coming to greet someone. Just like in America, there are times when we feel obliged to visit someone for the first time and exchange salutations. In Japanese, this means you need to show due respect. The verb 伺う in this sentence is a humble form of 来る.
Practice (1): Translate the following.
3. Please do your homework by tomorrow.
4. I'll come home by 10 o' clock.
5. I will wait until noon.
Culture Section: Trains
Trains are the most popular way to get anywhere in Japan. The 新幹線 (bullet train) continues to connect more and more of Japan. 緑の窓口is the "Green Window" and is where you buy reserved seat tickets (指定券) as well as long distance tickets. Most stations also have a machine to do this as well. However, you're more likely to find about deals if you go to an actual window. You can buy tickets in ticket vending machines (券売機). 入場券let you see people off on the platform, 定期券 are season tickets, 回数券are discounted tickets.
Four tickets to Osaka please.
It will take 4 and a half hours from Austin to Dallas.
We went together up to the train station.
This bus goes (up) to Kyoto.
How much is it to Shinjuku?
Geography Note: 新宿 is a major commercial and administrative center.
The adverbial particle まで exemplifies an extremity. This is by nature showing degree, but extremity has a great sense of intensity to it. The emotional aspect separates it from the case particle. Aside from that, it also has peculiar usages. Even so, when just after a noun or verb, it's not that obvious that it's any different from what you've just seen above.
22. オレのガールフレンドまでもオレを疑ってるんだよ。(Masculine; rough)
Even my own girlfriend doubts me.
23. どこまでオレを憎むのか。(Masculine; rough)
To what extent do you detest me?
I've never seen such scenery before.
I've been living in Sweden all this while.
Wow, isn't that a little harsh saying that much?
Even that person became obsessed with religion.
Spelling Note: The verb はまりだすcan be spelled in 漢字 as 嵌り出す.