This lesson will finish our coverage on the most fundamental uses of the particle で. They are really different from the one's you've already learned. So, try not to confuse them with each other! This lesson will conclude with an exercise that will challenge you to use all your knowledge of the combined four uses covered in this lesson and the previous lesson on で.
1. で shows the basis of an action/event not of one's volition--”due to". It's used with nouns that indicate things such as natural phenomena, events, illnesses, etc. The verb should not show any will of someone. This is because nothing and no one can cause natural phenomena.
He died due to heart failure.
The victim died from loss of blood.
The fire was caused by playing with matches.
The warrior died from his wounds.
The school has closed for Christmas/the holidays.
To shake from the cold.
I'm busy with homework.
I forgot myself from joy.
Pronoun Note: 我 is used here like a set phrase. Normally, you just don't get to use 我 whenever you want.
I'm filled with sad emotions.
Naturalness Note: Not all speakers like this phrase, but 〇〇（という）気持ちでいっぱい is becoming very common these days. Speakers who find this phrase unnatural would replace it with something like 悲しいです or とても悲しく思っています.
2. で shows an extent which may create juncture. Juncture deals with a point in time or place. However, it is not definite in nature as the particle に. This does not mean phrases like 一秒で are impossible. The purpose of に is to show exact time. Think of the difference as "The ice fully melted in 3 hours, 4 minutes, and 32 seconds" vs "The ice fully melted in three hours". Juncture could also be used to show at what point something happens. The vagueness of this comment is on purpose. For instance, you'd use で to show at what temperature something boils or melts.
Translation isn't really important to focus on, but it usually translates to "at" or "for". As for other specific instances this で can be used in, it can show summation, which helps with stating prices like in Ex. 15 (this sentence would be said by say a person who knows you rather than a clerk).
The tallest mountain in the world is Mount Everest.
My mother got married at age 20.
I leave you tomorrow.
Please think for yourself.
I don’t like managing with the team.
It's 500 yen with everything.
We will close at 10.
He passed away at 100 years old.
Water freezes at ０℃.
I found out in a second!
Practice: Translate the following. If it's in English translate it into Japanese (polite speech). If it's in Japanese, translate it in English.
1. In a week it becomes summer vacation.
3. You make butter with milk.
7. Can you do it in 20 minutes?
9. He broke it due to carelessness.
10. Please write in pen.
12. To end with sadness.
15. I went by myself.
The conjunction で is a contraction of それで, which utilizes usage 4 from above from the sense of juncture (connecting sentences) in a sense related to reasoning. This makes it very similar to the particle ので, which may also be found starting a sentence in なので. The use of なので in this manner is relatively new, and a lot of people think it is wrong. So, keep this in mind as well.
However, unlike で, the speaker is not intending on simply responding and or trying to change the topic. なので is "so" as in "so, this happened" because of what is stated before it.
So, are you alright?
Everyone didn't agree to the bill. So, the politicians proposed an alternative plan.
So, what happened?
2. What's the time on your watch?
4. I bought that book for 3,000 yen.
5. To cut a finger on glass.
6. It is 500 yen for two.
8. I commute to school by bicycle.
11. It became 10 o' clock.
Note: Remember that the predicate function is the 終止形. -ます would change the definition.
13. It was postponed due to the rain.
14. The bus didn't come due to (the) snow.