いる works quite differently whenever it is after the particle て. In this instance, いる functions as a supplementary verbs. In Japanese a supplementary verb is a verb that loses some or all of its literal connotations to serve (a) specific grammatical purpose(s).
Curriculum Note: Click link for more advanced coverage between the two.
～ている shows continuation, habit, progress, or state of being. Correct interpretation is dependant on the verb being used. So, you are looking for intrinsic qualities about the verbs you want to use it with.
The first usage is like "-ing". Your doing something, thus it is a continuation in the present time. This is also linked to ongoing action, which is typically expressed with verbs of process--食べる、飲む、走る.
Taro is eating breakfast.
I am a teacher.
Phrase Note: Remember that using ～をする in this manner shows profession and is more appropriate in this situation than です.
Then there are instances in which the action is not being literally done now, but it's a habit of some sort.
I go to School A.
Geniuses are always diving into studies.
When used with verbs like 着る (to wear), it shows a state of being dressed. This is in contrast to putting clothing on, which has to be expressed differently to avoid ambiguity as 着ている最中. Other verbs are just like this.
His necktie is tangled.
I'm wearing old clothes.
For verbs of motion like 行く and 帰る, it shows state of having done that movement. Interpret it as a completed action and the result being the state in effect.
She has come to Tokyo.
He's already gone home, right?
To have a red face.
She has long hair.
I live near Tokyo Station.
He had been the chairman.
Nuance Note: 会長 is a chairman of an organization; 議長 is a chairman of an assembly.
You resemble your mother well.
Word Note: お母さん is used here instead of 母 because the speaker is reference to the listener's mother rather than her own.
The bridge is made of stone.
This desk is broken.
Sugar has already been put in.
The moderate weather is continuing today, isn't it?
The lodge faces the mountain.
He continued to flop along the street.
Note: 続ける can attach to the 連用形 of another verb to mean “to continue to…”.
The textbook is suitable for beginners.
Is the bath hot yet?
The clock is five minutes fast.
I own a vehicle.
I gathered the apples that were on the tree.
Word Note: This なる is 生る, which means "to bear fruit". So, this sentence more literally reads "I gathered the apples that ripened on the tree". If you were to say the third line, it sounds like the apple is somehow out of place inside a tree. It definitely isn't talking about picking apples from an apple tree.
The town lies in the valley.
The mountain towers above (everything).
I am studying law at Meiji University.
Do you have any vacant rooms this evening?
Does the price include fully comprehensive insurance?
He's passing an electric current.
The road is crowded.
Attribute Note: When 込んでいる is an attribute, it's often just 込んだ. Also, you wouldn't use 込む to describe Tokyo or Japan. You could say 東京はどこへ行っても込んでいる, which means "Tokyo is crowded wherever you go".
Spelling Note: This usage of the verb 込む can also be spelled as 混む.
Phrase Note: The above phrase is only used when telling for how long something has existed.
It's an overwhelming situation with the numbers.
The negative is ～ていない, but ～ず（に）いる and ～ないでいる mean "without...-ing". The first is used in more formal, poetic-like speech.
I don't remember.
I'm not doing anything.
It is impossible to stay never getting sick.
He is always ill at ease.
She has not been able to go to school.
Grammar Note: 通える is the potential form of the verb 通う.
He acted without (even) listening.
～ている is often contracted to ～てる. Even in polite speech, it is not uncommon to hear people get a little lazy and say ～てます. It's fair to say, though, that in such situations, there is more familiarity between the speakers. Otherwise, in truly polite situations such as being in an interview, it is NG (エヌジー ＝ No good) to use it.
Dialect Note: It may also be ～とる and ～ちょる in other regions of Japan. This is a contraction of ～ておる, which in Standard Japanese is the plain humble form of ～ている. However, in the dialects in which this is used in, it is the standard non-honorific form of the pattern.
Were you listening to what I was saying just now?
My dad doesn't know what I am studying.
Word Note: 動く is "to move "as in about, not "to move to a different house". That is 引っ越す.
Practice: Translate the following.
1. I'm in a hurry.
2. It had been raining.
3. The lights are on.
4. She isn't singing.
5. I went without eating.
知らない VS 知っていない
The standard negative form of 知っている is 知らない. However, 知っていない does exist. 知っていない often appears whenever the affirmative and negative of 知っている are used contrastively.
Consider the particle ば.
知っている + ば → 知っていなければ ＝ If you don't know
知らない + ば → 知らなければ = If you don't realize
知っていない is also possible when the negative is being used for affirmative conjecture, which we've seen already before with things like じゃないか, 遊びに行かない?
Essentially, 知らない denotes attention to a static condition of not knowing whereas 知っていない denotes attention to the completeness of knowing in the negative sense. 知っていない is inconstant and denotes an objective view from the outside in regards to a lack of knowledge, which is exactly why students are rightfully told they are wrong when they try to apply it as meaning "I don't know". 知らない involves denoting a lack of knowledge from the inward perspective of the thing at hand.
There are still instances when 知っていない is seen, but it is almost completely avoided. The single instance where it is in imperative is still used, but many simply avoid it as there are synonymous phrases like 理解できない and 腑に落ちていない. Derivatives are most common, which is the most important thing to keep in mind.
Even if you do or do not know
It's not whether [they] know or do not know that.
Note: Notice how in this situation the use of 知っていない is avoided by using 否.
Whether you know or not
Intended: If you don't know Japanese, you can't answer this question.
Intended: In order to pass this exam, you must know Japanese well.
Otherwise, 知っていない is probably a mistake or dialectical because there are dialects where the same thing is acceptable.
"What did Tanaka know about this? "No, he still didn't know anything"
Note: This section is heavily based off of the great research done by the Japanese linguist 久野すすむ. You can read his full explanation of this in Japanese in his work 新日本文法研究.
Excerpt from 松本清張: 知っていない 〇
"Presumably a problematic correspondence came in. You probably heard most of it from Suzuki, but as for now, no one else knows about this situation. We would like to persistently deal with [this matter] by standing in your position, but how are your feelings?"
From 混声の森 (下) by 松本清張.
This example is chosen for several reasons. One, it has a well-crafted example of 知っていない. Two, information about the author brings insight to alternative explanations of the phrasing. Three, the excerpt is rich in review and items not yet discussed.
We will study things in order from the beginning to the end. どうも is most known to mean "very much" in phrases like どうもありがとう（ございます). However, that is not the meaning being used in this example. Rather, it should be translated as "presumably". In looking at the rest of the context and having two options, you would no doubt choice "presumably", too.
The next interesting aspect is the use of ～てね. Here, it is used to soften the tone, which if given more information about the passage, this would be clearly perfect. Yet, the past tense meaning is still evident from context. If the situation were different, though, the tense could potentially be different. Thus, from this sentence alone, one can deduce that て doesn't intrinsically possess tense. This will be discussed in further depth later in IMABI.
The next thing to note is ～君. The speaker, whose name is 謙一, is 鈴木's superior and is also presumably older than 鈴木. Thus, it is appropriate for him to refer to 鈴木 with ～君. 鈴木 is in the same room at the time, but this makes no difference here.
The use of だろう rather than でしょう has been typical of male speech, but due to the neutralization of speech in the differences between 男性語 and 女性語, だろう has become more vulgarized. However, given that there is a generational gap in this passage and that it is followed by が, more modern emotional reactions to the use of だろう are not felt.
今だったら uses a form of the copula that you need not worry about anytime soon. However, what it does use is the particle たら, which aids in expressing a hypothetical conjecture about the current time frame.
Now, we get to why 知っていない was used. It fits well with the explanation that it denotes an objective view from the outside in regards to a lack of knowledge. It wouldn't be like misuses by Japanese learners. Though the writer is perhaps one of the most influential writers of the 20th century, his native dialect allows for its variant of 知っていない. It is fair to say, though, that due to hypercorrection, 知っていない would be changed to 知らない by the majority of speakers.
～たいと思う is used to show what one wishes to do, and it is used here in a polite fashion together with んです to emphasize intent/reason. Lastly, the prefix お is added to 気持（ち） in being respectful to the woman being questioned.
States & Appearances 状態・様子
A broken egg.
| 卵が割れている。 |
The eggs is broken.
The egg broke.
The egg has been broken (and still is).
A slim figure
To have a slim figure
Figure got skinny.
He, who is fat
He is fat.
He got fat.
A bulging/swollen finger
A swollen finger
The finger is bulging/swollen.
The finger bulged/got swollen.
A pocket with a hole
There's a hole in my pocket
A hole opened up in the pocket.
A distorted viewpoint
Your viewpoint is distorted.
A rotten bridge
A rotting/rotten bridge
The bridge is rotting/rotten.
The bridge rotted.
A dented door
The door is dented.
The door got dented.
A frozen river
The river is frozen/freezing.
The river froze.
The sand is dry/drying.
The sand dried.
There are cracks in the wall.
Cracks have gotten in the wall.
A twisted narrow path
The narrow path is twisted.
A chipped teacup
The teacup is chipped.
The teacup got chipped.
1. ～た is often preferred over ～ている when used as an attribute. You can substitute it and still create a grammatical phrase, but 90% of the time, ～た is used.
2. Context determines whether ～ている is the 進行形(progressive) or the 完了形(perfective).