第195課: Counters IX: Counters with ヶ・ヵ

个 is the most commonly used measure word in Mandarin Chinese. This character is a simplified version of 箇, derived by taking one half of the 竹 radical. In Japanese,  个 is further reduced to ケ, which is then normally shrunk to ヶ. Appearance-wise, this glyph looks like a small Katakana ケ. However, the Katakana ケ actually derives from 介. The glyph ヶ is also treated as a variant of 個.

When used in counter phrases, ヶ is pronounced as “ka.” In government documents and news broadcasts, it is alternatively written as か. In other forms of publications such as the news or official documents at the workplace, it may also alternatively be written as カ or even ヵ.

The purpose of ヶ is to count things, but it can’t do this on its own. It is found as part of a handful of counters, all of which are frequently used. These counters will be the focus of this lesson.

・ヶ月(間)/カ月(間)/か月(間)/ヵ月(間)
・ヶ年/カ年/か年/ヵ年
・ヶ条/カ条/か条/ヵ条
・ヶ所/カ所/か所/ヵ所
・ヶ国/カ国/か国/ヵ国
・ヶ国語/カ国語/か国語/ヵ国語
・言語

As you can see, we have already familiarized ourselves with the first two counters in Lesson 49.

Lastly, after we have learned about these counters, we will conclude the lesson by learning about an exclusive purpose ヶ, alternatively written as a full-sized ケ, has in place names.


Spelling Notes:
1. The following outlets use か月: 読売新聞, NHK, 日本テレビ, and テレビ東京.
2. The following outlets use カ月: 朝日新聞, 毎日新聞, 日本経済新聞, 産経新聞, テレビ朝日, and フジテレビ.
3. The non-simplified spelling 箇 may also be seen in the spellings of the counters introduced in this lesson.

Reading Notes:
1. Because ヶ is also treated as an abbreviated form of 個, it can also stand for the counter 個. This, though, is only done based on personal preference.
2. At times in literature, カタカナ is sometimes used in 送り仮名. When this is the case, ケmay be shrunk to ヶ with no change in meaning or pronunciation. Meaning, it would be read as “ke” and would need to be distinguished from the ヶ discussed in this lesson. This use of a literal small ヶ can also be seen used in dialectical spelling.

Counters with ヶ・カ・か・ヵ

ヶ月(間)/カ月(間)/か月(間)/ヵ月(間)

This counter is used to count a period of months.

 1

 いっかげつ(かん)

 2

 にかげつ(かん) 

 3

 さんかげつ(かん)

 4

 よんかげつ(かん)

 5

 ごかげつ(かん)

 6

 ろっかげつ(かん)

 7

 ななかげつ(かん)

 8

 はちかげつ(かん)
 はっかげつ(かん)

 9

 きゅうかげつ(かん)

 10

 じゅっかげつ(かん)
 じっかげつ(かん)

 100

 ひゃっかげつ(かん)

 ?

 なんかげつ(かん)


1. 8(はち)(げつ)(やく)5()(ばい)になった計算(けいさん)だ。
This calculation shows it’s become approximately five times greater in eight months.

2. 異常気象(いじょうきしょう)(すう)()(げつ)でグリーンアノールを急速(きゅうそく)進化(しんか)させた。
Extreme weather has made the green anole to rapidly evolve in a few months.

3. レギュラーガソリン、3(さん)(げつ)ぶりに値下(ねさ)がり
First Price Decline for Regular Gasoline in Three Months

4. 「法定(ほうてい)12(じゅうに)()月点検(げつてんけん)」って(かなら)(じゅ)けなければいけないのでしょうか。
Must you always take the “Statutory 12-Month Inspection”?

5. 今回(こんかい)はこの5()()(げつ)のダイエット生活(せいかつ)()(かえ)ってみたいと(おも)います。
This time, I would like to look back at my dieting life for these past five months.


ヶ年/カ年/か年/ヵ年

This counter translates as “over…years” and is frequently employed in legislation and business settings.

 1

 いっかねん △

 2

 にかねん

 3

 さんかねん

 4

 よんかねん

 5

 ごかねん

 6

 ろっかねん

 7

 ななかねん

 8

 はちかねん
 
はっかねん

 9

 きゅうかねん

 10 

 じゅっかねん
 
じっかねん

 100

 ひゃっかねん

 ?

 なんかねん


6. この(さん)年実施計画書(ねんじっしけいかくしょ)(もと)づいて予算(よさん)編成(へんせい)します。
(We) will compile the budget based on this three-year implementation plan.

7. 道路整備(どうろせいび)()年計画(ねんけいかく)決定(けってい)された。
The five-year road maintenance plan was decided upon.

8. (くに)直轄工事(ちょっかつこうじ)では、()()年国債(ねんこくさい)活用(かつよう)によって新規工事契約件数(しんきこうじけいやくけんすう)()えた。
In government-controlled construction, the number of new construction contracts increased due to the application of two-year government bonds.

9. この(ろっ)()年計画(ねんけいかく)非現実性(ひげんじつせい)について説明(せつめい)します。
I will explain the impracticality of this six-year plan.

10. 政府(せいふ)は、がん研究(けんきゅう)10(じっ)年戦略(ねんせんりゃく)策定(さくてい)した。
The government settled on the ten-year strategy for cancer research.


ヶ条/カ条/か条/ヵ条

This counter is used to counter the number of articles/clauses/sections in an official document. It may also be used to mean “points” as in “10 points to a happy marriage.” The noun for article/clause is 箇条, which is written with 箇 instead of with any of the abbreviated variants of the character.

 1

 いっかじょう

 2

 にかじょう

 3

 さんかじょう

 4

 よんかじょう

 5

 ごかじょう

 6

 ろっかじょう

 7

 ななかじょう

 8

 はちかじょう
 はっかじょう

 9

 きゅうかじょう

 10

 じゅっかじょう
 じっかじょう

 100

 ひゃっかじょう

 ?

 なんかじょう

 

11. (しあわ)せになる100(ひゃっ)(じょう)
The 100 Points to Becoming Happy

12. がんを防ぐための12か条
12 Point Guide to Preventing Cancer

13. 情報(じょうほう)セキュリティ()(じょう)
Five-Point Information Security

14. 放火防止(ほうかぼうし)()(じょう)実践(じっせん)しましょう。
Let’s practice the five points to preventing arson.

15. 暴力団対応(ぼうりょくだんたいおう)12(じゅうに)(じょう)
Twelve Points to Handling Gangs

16. マイナンバー(ほう)57(ごじゅうなな)()(じょう)あります。
The My Number Law has 57 clauses.

17. 憲法(けんぽう)全部(ぜんぶ)169(ひゃくろくじゅうきゅう)()(じょう)あります。
The constitution has 169 clauses in total.

18. 権利(けんり)自由(じゆう)(さだ)めた条文(じょうぶん)11(じゅういっ)()(じょう)あります。
The text has 11 clauses that establish rights and freedoms.

19. 現行憲法(げんこうけんぽう)全部(ぜんぶ)103(ひゃくさん)()(じょう)あって、そのうち補足(ほそく)4(よん)()(じょう)あります。
The current constitution has 103 clauses in total, and of those there are four complementary notes.


ヶ所/カ所/か所/ヵ所

  This counter is used to count places/locations. As a noun, 箇所 means “passage/part.”

 1

 いっかしょ

 2

 にかしょ

 3

 さんかしょ

 4

 よんかしょ

 5

 ごかしょ

 6

 ろっかしょ

 7

 ななかしょ

 8

 はちかしょ
 はっかしょ

 9

 きゅうかしょ

 10

 じゅっかしょ
 じっかしょ

 100

 ひゃっかしょ

 ?

 なんかしょ


20. (さん)年前(ねんまえ)(はち)(がつ)20(はつ)()広島市内(ひろしましない)166(ひゃくろくじゅうろっ)(しょ)土石流(どせきりゅう)崖崩(がけくず)れが発生(はっせい)し、77(ななじゅうなな)(にん)死亡(しぼう)しました。
77 people died in the debris flows and the landslides that occurred in 166 places within Hiroshima City three years ago on August 20th.

21. 2()3(さん)()(しょ)(あやま)りがあります。
There are two or three areas with mistakes.

22. 見直(みなお)された避難所(ひなんじょ)1(いっ)(しょ)もありません。
There is not a single shelter that has been re-examined.

23.  3(さん)所以上(しょいじょう)医療機関(いりょうきかん)通院(つういん)している高齢者(こうれいしゃ)9(きゅう)(わり)が、慢性疾患(まんせいしっかん)(くすり)5()種類以上処方(しゅるいいじょうしょほう)されている。
Nine-tenths of elderly patients being regularly treated at over three medial institutions are being prescribed over five kinds of chronic illness medication.

24. ポケストップを10(じゅっ)所連続(しょれんぞく)(まわ)りました。
I visited ten Pokestops in a row.


ヶ国/カ国/か国/ヵ国

This counter is used to count countries/nations.

 1

 いっかこく

 2

 にかこく

 3

 さんかこく

 4

 よんかこく

 5

 ごかこく

 6

 ろっかこく

 7

 ななかこく

 8

 はちかこく
 はっかこく

 9

 きゅうかこく

 10

 じゅっかこく
 じっかこく

 100

 ひゃっかこく

 ?

 なんかこく


25. 現在(げんざい)OECD(オーイーシーディー)加盟国(かめいこく)35(さんじゅうご)(こく)となっています。
Currently, there are thirty-five member states in the OECD.

26. 世界(せかい)(くに)(かず)(なん)()(こく)
What is the number of countries in the world?

27. パレスチナに(かん)しては、日本政府(にっぽんせいふ)国家承認(こっかしょうにん)していないが、すでに(やく)130(ひゃくさんじゅっ)(こく)がパレスティナを承認(しょうにん)している。
Regarding Palestine, although the Japanese government does not recognize it as a state, there are already approximately 130 nations that have recognized Palestine.

28. アジア3(さん)()(こく)(またが)洪水(こうずい)(やく)300(さんびゃく)(にん)死亡(しぼう)した。
Approximately 300 people have died in the flooding that has spanned three Asian countries.

29. 世界(せかい)10(じゅっ)()国以上(こくいじょう)愛用(あいよう)されている。
It is habitually used in over ten countries in the world.

In set phrases, especially those related to history and international politics, nations may be counted with 国.  

30. オーストリアとカナダは二国間関係(にこくかんかんけい)(むす)んでいる。
Australia and Canada have bilateral relations.

31. アメリカとの()(こく)(かん)()(ゆう)貿(ぼう)(えき)(きょう)(てい)(じつ)(げん)するのか。
Will a bilateral free trade agreement realize with America?

32. バルト三国(さんごく)は、バルト(かい)東岸(とうがん)、フィンランドの(みなみ)南北(なんぼく)(なら)3(みっ)つの(くに)()す。
The Baltic States refers to the three countries lined up north to south to the south of Finland on the east coast of the Baltic Sea.

Grammar Note: Notice how “the three countries” is expressed with 3つの国. This is an another means of counting countries that is occasionally used.


ヶ国語/カ国語/か国語/ヵ国語

This counter is used to count languages. However, as is implied by the spelling, this usually only refers to languages that are national languages. Because of this, counting languages with 言語, the word for “language,” is deemed most appropriate whenever national status is not a concern with the languages one is counting.

・かこくご

 1

 いっかこくご

 2

 にかこくご

 3

 さんかこくご

 4

 よんかこくご

 5

 ごかこくご

 6

 ろっかこくご

 7

 ななかこくご

 8

 はちかこくご
 はっこくご

 9

 きゅうかこくご

 10

 じゅっかこくご
 じっかこくご

 100

 ひゃっかこくご

 ?

 なんかこくご

・げんご

 1

 いちげんご

 2

 にげんご

 3

 さんげんご

 4

 よんげんご

 5

 ごげんご

 6

 ろくげんご

 7

 ななげんご

 8

 はちげんご

 9

 きゅうげんご

 10

 じゅうげんご

 100

 ひゃくげんご

 ?

 なんげんご


33. ()()国語(こくご)(はな)(ひと)のことをバイリンガルと()びますが、(さん)()国語(こくご)話者(わしゃ)をトライリンガルもしくはトリリンガルと()びます。
We call people who speak two languages bilingual, but we call speakers of three languages trilingual. 

34. 2()言語併記(げんごへいき)標識(ひょうしき)看板(かんばん)などが設置(せっち)されている。
Bilingual signs and billboards are installed.

35. ヘルシンキ市内(しない)には30(さんじゅっ)国語(こくご)(おし)える学校(がっこう)もある。
There is also a school in Helsinki that teaches thirty languages.

36. この地域(ちいき)では15(じゅうご)言語(げんご)使用(しよう)されている。
There are fifteen languages used in this region.

37. 英語(えいご)・フランス()・オランダ()3(さん)国語(こくご)(おし)える学校(がっこう)となりました。
The school has become a school that teaches the three languages English, French, and Dutch.

38. 日本政府(にっぽんせいふ)からの情報番組(じょうほうばんぐみ)()国語放送(こくごほうそう))をご紹介(しょうかい)します。
Here is an introduction to an information program (five-language broadcast) from the Japanese government.

39. (かれ)はプログラミング言語(げんご)(ふく)めて、10(じゅう)言語話(げんごはな)せるらしい。
He apparently knows ten languages, including also programming languages.

40. SOV(エスオーブイ)(がた)一番多(いちばんおお)565(ごひゃくろくじゅうご)言語(げんご)()いでSVO(エスブイオー)(がた)488(よんひゃくはちじゅうはち)言語(げんご)である。
The SOV pattern is the one with the most languages with 565, following it is the SVO pattern with 488. 

Place Names: ヶ・ケ

When ヶ, alternatively spelled as ケ, is used in places names, especially those found in East Japan, it stands in place of a classical usage of the particle が, which is to mark the possessive case. In this sense, it is equivalent to the particleの. Not all place names with this が are written with these glyphs, though. Sometimes it’s just written as が・ガ.   

 Sekigahara 

 関ケ原

 Hatogaya

 鳩ヶ谷

 Tsutsujigaoka つつじヶ丘
 Chigasaki

 茅ヶ崎

 Shichigahama 七ヶ浜  Aogashima

 青ヶ島

 Yatsugatake

 八ヶ岳

 Kamagaya

 鎌ケ谷

 Kasumigaseki

 霞が関