The curriculum lineup has been updated!

第306課: Sino-Japanese Suffixes I

      Not all of Sino-Japanese suffixes will be mentioned in this lesson. Although this may look like it's a ton of information, you have actually seen the majority of these endings already.

The Suffixes

-員(いん) is an employee of some sort. 

1. 参議院議員
    Member of the House of Councilors

2. 審判員
    Umpire


-下(か) = "under the(...of)" 

3. 独裁者が首都を戒厳令下に置いた。
    The dictator put the capital under martial law.

4. 香港中国支配下にある。
    Hong Kong is under the control of China.


-外(がい) = Outside. This is used in more specialized vocabulary.  

5. そちらは私の権限外でございますす。
    That is outside my authority.

6. 普通外
    Out of the ordinary


-街(がい) = Street 

7. ロサンゼルスの日本人街
   Japanese street in Los Angeles


-加減(かげん) = Tendency 

8. 湯加減はどう?
    How's the bath water?

9. 酒のいい飲み加減
    Sake at the best temperature


-格好(かっこう) = Around...years old 

10. 30格好の指導者
      A leader around 30 years old


-間(かん) = Between. It is used with location words like cities and nations.  

11. 東京・大阪間の本線はどちらでしょうか。 
     Where is the main line between Tokyo and Osaka?

12. 国際間の緊張を緩和することは不可能だ。
      Lessening of international tensions is impossible.

13. 林間学校  
      Open-air school 


-感(かん) = Sense 

14. 劣等感との和解は簡単にはかなわない。
      A compromise with inferiority is simply unbearable.

15. あの男は清潔感がある。
      That man has a sense of cleanliness.


-巻(かん) = Volume (of a book)

16. ブリタニカの第10巻
     The 10th volume of the Britannica


-観(かん) = Point of view 

17. 日本人観
      The Japanese point of view


-癌(がん) Cancer 

18. 乳癌
Breast cancer


-儀 = In regards to/as for (with pronouns, people's names, or nouns associated with them). 

19. 私儀(わたくしぎ)
      As for me

Word Note: This is a very humble expression that refers to oneself used in the written language.


-気(ぎ) = -like nature 

20. 商売気)のない実業家は存在するのでしょう。
     I wonder a non-profit motivated businessman exists?


-級(きゅう) = Level; grade; degree; class 

21. 第一級の博士
     A first class professor


-強(きょう) = A little more than 

22. 昨日の余震は震度五強だった。  
      Yesterday's aftershocks were a little more than 5 (degrees magnitude).


-狂(きょう) = Fan(atic)

23. 大の相撲狂じゃない。
     I am no big sumo fanatic.


-県(けん) = Prefecture (Excluding Hokkaido, Kyoto, Osaka, and Tokyo) 

24. 兵庫県は日本の43県の一つである。
     Hyogo Prefecture is one of Japan's 43 ken-prefectures.


-圏(けん) = Bloc (sphere) 

25. 木星の大気圏の外観を見ると大赤班が確認できる。
      If you look at the surface of the atmosphere of Jupiter, you can confirm a Great Red Spot.

26. 関東一円が暴風圏に入る見込みです。
      It is projected that all of the Kanto district will enter the storm zone.

Word Note: This 一円 means "the whole area", not "one yen".  


-券(けん) = Ticket 

 搭乗券 Boarding pass 入場券 Admission ticket 航空券 Plane ticket
 乗車券 Railroad ticket 会員券 Membership card 割引券 Coupon

-権(けん) = Right  

27. 選挙権
     The right to vote


-腱(けん) = Tendon 

28. アキレス腱は足にある。
     The Achilles' tendon is in the leg.


-家(け) = Name of a family

29. 徳川家は有名なのです。
      The Tokugawa Family is famous.

 
-系(けい) = Lineage; system

30. アフリカ系移民によってアメリカの文化はよほど豊かになりましたよね。
      By African immigrants American culture has greatly become enriched,hasn't it?

31. 太陽系は9つの惑星と彗星などが含まれる。
      The solar system includes things such as the nine planets and smaller satellites.
 
32. 小型の動物は循環系を持たないものが多い。
      There are a lot of small sized animals that do not possess a circulatory system.

 
-御 = Adds a sense of reverence. This is old-fashioned and usually limited to the written language and or purposely semi-archaic settings.
 
33. 姪御さん
     Someone's niece

34. 殿御は女性から男性に対して敬っていう語である。
     Gentleman is a phrase said to respect males from women.

Word Note: 殿御 is old-fashioned.  

35. 「親御」とは他人の父母の敬称でございます。
     "Oyago" is a respectful title of someone's father and mother.  


-湖(こ) = Lake 

36. 琵琶湖は日本で最大の面積と貯水量を誇り様々な種類が生息している。
      Lake Biwa boasts the largest area and water capacity in Japan and various species inhabit it.


-公(こう) = Title that either shows respect, affection, or scorn.

 菅公 Great Mr. Kan 熊公 Mr. Bear 先公 Teacher (derogatory) ポリ公 Cop (derogatory)
 ワン公 Mr. Doggy エテ公 Mr. Monkey    

-工(こう) = Person of a particular trade

37. 父は配管工をしています。 
     My dad is a plumber.

-号(ごう)= Number/edition

38. 台風2号は那覇を襲ったということです。
      Typhoon No. 2 hit Naha.

39. コロコロの6月号は来週に発行されるはずです。
     The June issue of CoroCoro is supposed to be issued next week.


-座(ざ) = Constellation; name of theater 

40. 歌舞伎座は2013年に再び開かれる予定です。
     The Kabukiza Theater will be reopened in 2013.

41. こぐま座は小北斗七星とも呼ばれる。
      Ursa Minor is also called the Little Dipper.


-山(さん・ざん) = Mount; mountain 

42. 富士山は活火山(かっかざん)である。
      Mount Fuji is an active volcano.


-酸(さん) = Acid 

43. 蟻酸を扱う際に注意しなければいけないのだ。
     You must be careful when you are dealing with formic acid.


-三昧(ざんまい) ="luxury" and is used in idiomatic expressions. It is usually used in positive contexts.

44. 贅沢ぜいたく三昧
      Living in luxury

45. 読書三昧でした。
      It was a reader's paradise.

46a. 刃物()三昧に及ぶ。(不自然)
46b. 刃物沙汰に及ぶ。(自然)
        To amount to a knife fight. 

Phrase Note: The first option is rather strange. This is likely due to a mistranslation from a Western text into Japanese. However, this phrase may be seen used creatively in contexts where there is a luxury to be had with an array of 刃物.  


-市(し) = City 

47. 釜石市が津波で破壊されてしまった。
     Kamaishi City was destroyed by a tsunami.


-誌(し) = Magazine 

48. 週刊誌
      Weekly magazine


-死(し) = Death 

49. 自然死 
      Natural death 


-師(し) = Skilled worker; Reverend 

50. 美容師に髪を結ってもらう。
     She has her hairdresser do her hair.


-視(し) = View 

51. 採算を度外視する。
      To neglect profit.  


-弱(じゃく) = A little less than. The opposite of 強. 

52. 地震は六弱の強さでした。
     The earthquake was a strength of a little less than magnitude 6 (on the Shindo scale).


-衆(しゅう) = The masses 

53. 旦那衆
     Gents


-相(しょう) = Minister 

54. 外(務)相 
     Foreign minister


-賞(しょう) = Prize 

55. ノーベル賞を与える。
     To give the Nobel Prize.


-省(しょう) = Ministry 

56. 厚生労働省は日本の行政機関であります。
      The Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare is a governmental body of Japan.


-症(しょう) = Disease 

57. 感染症 
      Infectious disease 


-商(しょう) = Dealer 

58. 美術商
     Art dealer


-州(しゅう) = State; province 

59. アラスカ(州)は寒すぎるじゃん?
      Isn't Alaska too cold?


-宗(しゅう) = Sect 

60. 天台宗は大乗仏教の宗派の一つで、法華経に基づいた。
      The Tendai sect is a faction of Mahayana Buddhism and is based off of the Lotus Sutra.

I'm Moving!

I will moving the think tank, which is myself, to a new location this weekend and will be low on funds for a while. New lessons are still being made, but any donations at this time would greatly be appreciated.
Aside from the Donation tab, there are also two GoFundMe campaigns to help out. 

https://www.gofundme.com/remastering-japanese-curriculum?utm_source=internal&utm_medium=email&utm_content=campaign_link_t&utm_campaign=welcome

https://www.gofundme.com/fixing-vehicle