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第324課: Romanization Systems

    There have been several systems used to represent Japanese with Latin characters.

Kunrei-skiki Romanization

     The Kunrei-shiki was promulgated by the Ministry of Education and was repealed and then given stipulated variants for international relationships and then decreed again in 1954. New かな extensions are hard to apply with this system. So, ambiguity is a problem. For example, ティ and チ are both rendered as "ti".

  ア・ A イ・ I ウ・う U エ・え E オ・お O YA ャ YU ュ YO ョ
 K カ・か KA  キ・き KI  ク・く KU ケ・け KE コ・こ KO  キャ・きゃ KYA
 キュ・きゅ KYU
 キョ・きょ KYO
 S サ・さ SA  シ・し SI  ス・す SU   セ・せ SE  ソ・そ SO  シャ・しゃ SYA
 シュ・しゅ SYU
 ショ・しょ SYO
 T タ・た TA  チ・ち TI  ツ・つ TU テ・て TE  ト・と TO チャ・ちゃ TYA
 チュ・ちゅ TYU
 チョ・ちょ TYO
 N ナ・な NA  ニ・に NI  ヌ・ぬ NU  ネ・ね NE  ノ・の NO  ニャ・にゃ NYA
 ニュ・にゅ NYU
 ニョ・にょ NYO
 H ハ・は HA  ヒ・ひ HI フ・ふ HU  ヘ・へ HE   ホ・ほ HO  ヒャ・ひゃ HYA
 ヒュ・ひゅ HYU
 ヒョ・ひょ HYO
 M マ・ま MA  ミ・み MI  ム・む MU  メ・め ME  モ・も MO  ミャ・みゃ MYA
 ミュ・みゅMYU
 ミョ・みょ MYO
 Y ヤ・や YA  (I) ユ・ゆ YU (E) ヨ・よ YO


 R ラ・ら RA リ・り RI ル・る RU  レ・れ RE ロ・ろ RO リャ・りゃ RYA
 リュ・りゅ RYU
 リョ・りょ RYO
 W ワ・わ WA ヰ・ゐ I  (U) ヱ・ゑ E  ヲ・を O


      ン・ん N(')   
 G ガ・が GA ギ・ぎ GI グ・ぐ GU ゲ・げ GE ゴ・ご GO ギャ・ぎゃ GYA
 ギュ・ぎゅ GYU
 ギョ・ぎょ GYO
 Z ザ・ざ ZA ジ・じ ZI ズ。ず ZU ゼ・ぜ ZE ゾ・ぞ ZO ジャ・じゃ ZYA
 ジュ・じゅ ZYU
 ジュ・じょ ZYO
 D ダ・だ DA ヂ・ぢ ZI ヅ・づ ZU デ・で DE ド・ど DO ヂャ・ぢゃ ZYA
 ヂュ・ぢゅ ZYU
 ヂョ・ぢょ ZYO
 B バ・ば BA ビ ・び BI ブ・ぶ BU ベ・べ BE ボ・ぼ BO ビャ・びゃ BYA
 ビュ・びゅ BYU
 ビョ・びょ BYO
 P パ・ぱ PA ピ・ぴ PI プ・ぷ PU ペ・ぺ PE ポ・ぽ PO ピャ・ぴゃ PYA
 ピュ・ぴゅ PYU
 ピョ・ぴょ PYO

Other Orthographic Rules

  • The particles ヘ, ハ・は, and ヲ・を are "e", "wa", and "o" respectively. 
  • Long vowels are represented with a circumflex mark (ˆ).
  • ン・ん is n' before y.
  • No exceptions to spelling double consonants. 
Exceptions for International Purposes

 A I U O
 くゎ KWA
   
 ぐゎ GWA
   
   つ TSU
 
   ふ FU
 
 しゃ SHA
 し SHI
 しゅ SHU
 しょ SHO
 じゃ JA
 じ JI
 じゅ JU
 じょ JO
 ぢゃ DYA
 ぢ DI
 ぢゅ DYU
 ぢょ DYO
   づ DU
 

Hepburn Romanization

     The Hepburn Romanization system, ヘボン式ローマ字, is credited to James Curtis Hepburn who transcribed the Japanese language into English letters. There are three editions.  

Note: Rules for long vowels, long consonants, particles, and n' will be discussed during comparison. As for extended かな, the representation is the same as seen in IMABI Romanization. 

The First Edition

  ア・ A イ・ I ウ・う U エ・え E オ・お O YA ャ YU ュ YO ョ
 K カ・か KA  キ・き KI  ク・く KU ケ・け KE コ・こ KO  キャ・きゃ KYA
 キュ・きゅ KYU
 キョ・きょ KYO
 S サ・さ SA  シ・し SHI  ス・す SZ
 セ・せ SE  ソ・そ SO  シャ・しゃ SYA
 シュ・しゅ SYU
 ショ・しょ SYO
 T タ・た TA  チ・ち CHI  ツ・つ TSZ テ・て TE  ト・と TO チャ・ちゃ CHA
 チュ・ちゅ CHU
 チョ・ちょ CHO
 N ナ・な NA  ニ・に NI  ヌ・ぬ NU  ネ・ね NE  ノ・の NO  ニャ・にゃ NYA
 ニュ・にゅ NYU
 ニョ・にょ NYO
 H ハ・は HA  ヒ・ひ HI フ・ふ FU  ヘ・へ HE   ホ・ほ HO  ヒャ・ひゃ HYA
 ヒュ・ひゅ HYU
 ヒョ・ひょ HYO
 M マ・ま MA  ミ・み MI  ム・む MU  メ・め ME  モ・も MO  ミャ・みゃ MYA
 ミュ・みゅMYU
 ミョ・みょ MYO
 Y ヤ・や YA   ユ・ゆ YU  ヨ・よ YO


 R ラ・ら RA リ・り RI ル・る RU  レ・れ RE ロ・ろ RO リャ・りゃ RYA
 リュ・りゅ RYU
 リョ・りょ RYO
 W ワ・わ WA ヰ・ゐ WI
 ヱ・ゑ WE  ヲ・を WO


      ン・ん N(-), M   
 G ガ・が GA ギ・ぎ GI グ・ぐ GU ゲ・げ GE ゴ・ご GO ギャ・ぎゃ GYA
 ギュ・ぎゅ GYU
 ギョ・ぎょ GYO
 Z ザ・ざ ZA ジ・じ JI ズ。ず DZ ゼ・ぜ ZE ゾ・ぞ ZO ジャ・じゃ JA
 ジュ・じゅ JU
 ジュ・じょ JO
 D ダ・だ DA ヂ・ぢ JI ヅ・づ DZ デ・で DE ド・ど DO ヂャ・ぢゃ JA
 ヂュ・ぢゅ JU
 ヂョ・ぢょ JO
 B バ・ば BA ビ ・び BI ブ・ぶ BU ベ・べ BE ボ・ぼ BO ビャ・びゃ BYA
 ビュ・びゅ BYU
 ビョ・びょ BYO
 P パ・ぱ PA ピ・ぴ PI プ・ぷ PU ペ・ぺ PE ポ・ぽ PO ピャ・ぴゃ PYA
 ピュ・ぴゅ PYU
 ピョ・ぴょ PYO

The Second Edition

  ア・ A イ・ I ウ・う U エ・え YE オ・お O YA ャ YU ュ YO ョ
 K カ・か KA  キ・き KI  ク・く KU ケ・け KE コ・こ KO  キャ・きゃ KIYA
 キュ・きゅ KIU
 キョ・きょ KIYO
 S サ・さ SA  シ・し SI  ス・す SU   セ・せ SE  ソ・そ SO  シャ・しゃ SHA
 シュ・しゅ SHU
 ショ・しょ SHO
 T タ・た TA  チ・ち CHI  ツ・つ TSU テ・て TE  ト・と TO チャ・ちゃ CHA
 チュ・ちゅ CHU
 チョ・ちょ CHO
 N ナ・な NA  ニ・に NI  ヌ・ぬ NU  ネ・ね NE  ノ・の NO  ニャ・にゃ NYA
 ニュ・にゅ NYU
 ニョ・にょ NYO
 H ハ・は HA  ヒ・ひ HI フ・ふ FU  ヘ・へ HE   ホ・ほ HO  ヒャ・ひゃ HYA
 ヒュ・ひゅ HYU
 ヒョ・ひょ HYO
 M マ・ま MA  ミ・み MI  ム・む MU  メ・め ME  モ・も MO  ミャ・みゃ MYA
 ミュ・みゅMYU
 ミョ・みょ MYO
 Y ヤ・や YA
 ユ・ゆ YU  ヨ・よ YO


 R ラ・ら RA リ・り RI ル・る RU  レ・れ RE ロ・ろ RO リャ・りゃ RYA
 リュ・りゅ RYU
 リョ・りょ RYO
 W ワ・わ WA ヰ・ゐ WI   ヱ・ゑ YE  ヲ・を WO


      ン・ん N(-), M
   
 G ガ・が GA ギ・ぎ GI グ・ぐ GU ゲ・げ GE ゴ・ご GO ギャ・ぎゃ GYA
 ギュ・ぎゅ GYU
 ギョ・ぎょ GYO
 Z ザ・ざ ZA ジ・じ ZI ズ。ず DZU ゼ・ぜ ZE ゾ・ぞ ZO ジャ・じゃ JA
 ジュ・じゅ JU
 ジュ・じょ JO
 D ダ・だ DA ヂ・ぢ ZI ヅ・づ DZU デ・で DE ド・ど DO ヂャ・ぢゃ JA
 ヂュ・ぢゅ JU
 ヂョ・ぢょ JO
 B バ・ば BA ビ ・び BI ブ・ぶ BU ベ・べ BE ボ・ぼ BO ビャ・びゃ BYA
 ビュ・びゅ BYU
 ビョ・びょ BYO
 P パ・ぱ PA ピ・ぴ PI プ・ぷ PU ペ・ぺ PE ポ・ぽ PO ピャ・ぴゃ PYA
 ピュ・ぴゅ PYU
 ピョ・ぴょ PYO

Edits

  •  エ・え and ヱ・ゑ were transcribed as ye.
  •  ズ・ず and ヅ・づ were both changed to dzu.
  •  ス・す was not transcribed as sz.
  •  ツ・つ was not transcribed as tsz.
  •  キャ・きゃ, キュ・きゅ, and キョ・きょ were transcribed as kiya, kiu, and kiyo respectively.
  •  くわ was transcribed as kwa.

Third Edition: 1887 (Traditional Hepburn/Hyoujun-shiki Roomaji 標準式ローマ字)

  ア・ A イ・ I ウ・う U エ・え E オ・お O YA ャ YU ュ YO ョ
 K カ・か KA  キ・き KI  ク・く KU ケ・け KE コ・こ KO  キャ・きゃ KYA
 キュ・きゅ KYU
 キョ・きょ KYO
 S サ・さ SA  シ・し SHI  ス・す SU   セ・せ SE  ソ・そ SO  シャ・しゃ SHA
 シュ・しゅ SHU
 ショ・しょ SHO
 T タ・た TA  チ・ち CHI  ツ・つ TSU テ・て TE  ト・と TO チャ・ちゃ CHA
 チュ・ちゅ CHU
 チョ・ちょ CHO
 N ナ・な NA  ニ・に NI  ヌ・ぬ NU  ネ・ね NE  ノ・の NO  ニャ・にゃ NYA
 ニュ・にゅ NYU
 ニョ・にょ NYO
 H ハ・は HA  ヒ・ひ HI フ・ふ FU  ヘ・へ HE   ホ・ほ HO  ヒャ・ひゃ HYA
 ヒュ・ひゅ HYU
 ヒョ・ひょ HYO
 M マ・ま MA  ミ・み MI  ム・む MU  メ・め ME  モ・も MO  ミャ・みゃ MYA
 ミュ・みゅMYU
 ミョ・みょ MYO
 Y ヤ・や YA   ユ・ゆ YU  ヨ・よ YO


 R ラ・ら RA リ・り RI ル・る RU  レ・れ RE ロ・ろ RO リャ・りゃ RYA
 リュ・りゅ RYU
 リョ・りょ RYO
 W ワ・わ WA ヰ・ゐ (W)I   ヱ・ゑ (W)E  ヲ・を (W)O


      ン・ん N(-), M
   
 G ガ・が GA ギ・ぎ GI グ・ぐ GU ゲ・げ GE ゴ・ご GO ギャ・ぎゃ GYA
 ギュ・ぎゅ GYU
 ギョ・ぎょ GYO
 Z ザ・ざ ZA ジ・じ JI ズ。ず ZU ゼ・ぜ ZE ゾ・ぞ ZO ジャ・じゃ JA
 ジュ・じゅ JU
 ジュ・じょ JO
 D ダ・だ DA ヂ・ぢ JI ヅ・づ ZU デ・で DE ド・ど DO ヂャ・ぢゃ JA
 ヂュ・ぢゅ JU
 ヂョ・ぢょ JO
 B バ・ば BA ビ ・び BI ブ・ぶ BU ベ・べ BE ボ・ぼ BO ビャ・びゃ BYA
 ビュ・びゅ BYU
 ビョ・びょ BYO
 P パ・ぱ PA ピ・ぴ PI プ・ぷ PU ペ・ぺ PE ポ・ぽ PO ピャ・ぴゃ PYA
 ピュ・ぴゅ PYU
 ピョ・ぴょ PYO

Edits

  •  エ・え and ヱ・ゑ are e and (w)e respectively.
  •  The w in wi, we, and wo is made optional.
  •  四つ仮名 characters become standardized.
  •  Ky-sounds are no longer exceptions.
  •  Kw and gw is only recognized in historical contexts.

Modern Hepburn

  ア・ A イ・ I ウ・う U エ・え E オ・お O YA ャ YU ュ YO ョ
 K カ・か KA  キ・き KI  ク・く KU ケ・け KE コ・こ KO  キャ・きゃ KYA
 キュ・きゅ KYU
 キョ・きょ KYO
 S サ・さ SA  シ・し SHI  ス・す SU   セ・せ SE  ソ・そ SO  シャ・しゃ SHA
 シュ・しゅ SHU
 ショ・しょ SHO
 T タ・た TA  チ・ち TI  ツ・つ TU テ・て TE  ト・と TO チャ・ちゃ CHA
 チュ・ちゅ CHU
 チョ・ちょ CHO
 N ナ・な NA  ニ・に NI  ヌ・ぬ NU  ネ・ね NE  ノ・の NO  ニャ・にゃ NYA
 ニュ・にゅ NYU
 ニョ・にょ NYO
 H ハ・は HA  ヒ・ひ HI フ・ふ FU  ヘ・へ HE   ホ・ほ HO  ヒャ・ひゃ HYA
 ヒュ・ひゅ HYU
 ヒョ・ひょ HYO
 M マ・ま MA  ミ・み MI  ム・む MU  メ・め ME  モ・も MO  ミャ・みゃ MYA
 ミュ・みゅMYU
 ミョ・みょ MYO
 Y ヤ・や YA   ユ・ゆ YU  ヨ・よ YO


 R ラ・ら RA リ・り RI ル・る RU  レ・れ RE ロ・ろ RO リャ・りゃ RYA
 リュ・りゅ RYU
 リョ・りょ RYO
 W ワ・わ WA ヰ・ゐ (W)I   ヱ・ゑ (W)E  ヲ・を (W)O


      ン・ん N(')   
 G ガ・が GA ギ・ぎ GI グ・ぐ GU ゲ・げ GE ゴ・ご GO ギャ・ぎゃ GYA
 ギュ・ぎゅ GYU
 ギョ・ぎょ GYO
 Z ザ・ざ ZA ジ・じ JI ズ。ず ZU ゼ・ぜ ZE ゾ・ぞ ZO ジャ・じゃ JA
 ジュ・じゅ JU
 ジュ・じょ JO
 D ダ・だ DA ヂ・ぢ JI ヅ・づ ZU デ・で DE ド・ど DO ヂャ・ぢゃ JA
 ヂュ・ぢゅ JU
 ヂョ・ぢょ JO
 B バ・ば BA ビ ・び BI ブ・ぶ BU ベ・べ BE ボ・ぼ BO ビャ・びゃ BYA
 ビュ・びゅ BYU
 ビョ・びょ BYO
 P パ・ぱ PA ピ・ぴ PI プ・ぷ PU ペ・ぺ PE ポ・ぽ PO ピャ・ぴゃ PYA
 ピュ・ぴゅ PYU
 ピョ・ぴょ PYO

Edits

  •  (W)i and (w)e are essentially i and e respectfully.
  •  (W)o is based essentially on personal preference.
  •  ン・ん is no longer ever n- or m.

Compare and Contrast

     Changes also occurred in respect to long vowels and long consonants and with n' over time. Because there are no differences between these topics in the three original editions of Hepburn, this discussion will be about Traditional vs. Modern. 

Long Vowels

  Traditional Modern
 A Aa Ā
 I Ii Ii
 U Uu Ū
 E+E E/ee Ē
 E+I Ei Ei
 O+O Oo Ō
 O+U Ou Ō

Note: For loanwords all vowels are elongated with macrons. Also, common variations exist for O+U. Such variants include "oh", "o", "ou", "oo", and "ô".

Particles

  Traditional Modern
 へ He E
 は Wa Wa
 を Wo (W)o

Double Consonants

     There is no difference between any edition of Hepburn in respect to double consonants. Double consonants are represented normally with sh, ts, and ch doubled as "ssh", "tts", and "tch". 

The Uvular Nasal Consonant

     ン・ん in Traditional Hepburn is transcribed as m when before a m, b, or p sound. When before an n-sound or a vowel, it is separated from these sounds with a hyphen. In Modern Hepburn, m is replaced with n and an apostrophe is used instead of a hyphen when separated n' from n-sounds and vowels. 

Nihon-shiki Romanization

     The Nihon-shiki was created by Aikitsu Tanakadate 愛橘田中館 and is the basis for the Kunrei-shiki and is essentially the same minus a few exceptions. These differences are:

  •  Yotsugana differences are maintained.
  •  W-sounds are distinguished completely.
  •  Kw and gw are not changed to k and g.

  ア・ A イ・ I ウ・う U エ・え E オ・お O YA ャ YU ュ YO ョ
 K カ・か KA  キ・き KI  ク・く KU ケ・け KE コ・こ KO  キャ・きゃ KYA
 キュ・きゅ KYU
 キョ・きょ KYO
 S サ・さ SA  シ・し SI  ス・す SU   セ・せ SE  ソ・そ SO  シャ・しゃ SYA
 シュ・しゅ SYU
 ショ・しょ SYO
 T タ・た TA  チ・ち TI  ツ・つ TU テ・て TE  ト・と TO チャ・ちゃ TYA
 チュ・ちゅ TYU
 チョ・ちょ TYO
 N ナ・な NA  ニ・に NI  ヌ・ぬ NU  ネ・ね NE  ノ・の NO  ニャ・にゃ NYA
 ニュ・にゅ NYU
 ニョ・にょ NYO
 H ハ・は HA  ヒ・ひ HI フ・ふ HU  ヘ・へ HE   ホ・ほ HO  ヒャ・ひゃ HYA
 ヒュ・ひゅ HYU
 ヒョ・ひょ HYO
 M マ・ま MA  ミ・み MI  ム・む MU  メ・め ME  モ・も MO  ミャ・みゃ MYA
 ミュ・みゅMYU
 ミョ・みょ MYO
 Y ヤ・や YA   ユ・ゆ YU  ヨ・よ YO


 R ラ・ら RA リ・り RI ル・る RU  レ・れ RE ロ・ろ RO リャ・りゃ RYA
 リュ・りゅ RYU
 リョ・りょ RYO
 W ワ・わ WA ヰ・ゐ WI   ヱ・ゑ WE  ヲ・を WO


      ン・ん N(')   
 G ガ・が GA ギ・ぎ GI グ・ぐ GU ゲ・げ GE ゴ・ご GO ギャ・ぎゃ GYA
 ギュ・ぎゅ GYU
 ギョ・ぎょ GYO
 Z ザ・ざ ZA ジ・じ ZI ズ。ず ZU ゼ・ぜ ZE ゾ・ぞ ZO ジャ・じゃ ZYA
 ジュ・じゅ ZYU
 ジュ・じょ ZYO
 D ダ・だ DA ヂ・ぢ DI ヅ・づ DU デ・で DE ド・ど DO ヂャ・ぢゃ DYA
 ヂュ・ぢゅ DYU
 ヂョ・ぢょ DYO
 B バ・ば BA ビ ・び BI ブ・ぶ BU ベ・べ BE ボ・ぼ BO ビャ・びゃ BYA
 ビュ・びゅ BYU
 ビョ・びょ BYO
 P パ・ぱ PA ピ・ぴ PI プ・ぷ PU ペ・ぺ PE ポ・ぽ PO ピャ・ぴゃ PYA
 ピュ・ぴゅ PYU
 ピョ・ぴょ PYO
 KW クヮ・くゎ KWA
       
 GW グヮ・グヮ GWA
       

JSL Romanization

     The JSL Romanization created by Eleanor Jorden and introduced in her work Japanese: The Spoken Language is heavily based off of the Kunrei-shiki Romanization System but has some important differences. 

  1. All long vowels are shown with doubling. "Ou" is only seen when they are separate sounds.
  2. ŋ is distinguished as ḡ.
  3. N' is written as n̄.
  4. An acute accent is used to denote the first high-pitch mora in a word.
  5. A grave accent shows the last high-pitch mora in a word.
  6. A circumflex shows the only high-pitch mora in a word.

Exercises

1. Summarize the IMABI Romanization System.

2. What is different from the first and second editions of the Hepburn System?

3. What is different from the second and third editions of the Hepburn System?

4. What is different from the Traditional and Modern variants of the Hepburn System?

5. How do the Kunrei-shiki and JSL systems differ from the Nihon-shiki?

6. Romanize the following Japanese words in Kana with each romanization style. 

 加害 かがい (Assault) 煤 すす (Soot) 新聞 しんぶん (Newspaper)
 広報 こうほう (Publicity) 神戸へ こうべへ (To Kobe) ティー てぃー (Tea)
 収集 しゅうしゅう (Accumulation) 思う おもう (To think) 観音 かんのん (Kwannon)
 調教 ちょうきょう (Training animals) 蜜 みつ (Honey) 続く つづく (To continue)

Note: As for the the pitch marks in the JLS system, simply assign them accordingly to how you think they would soon like the most.  Be careful with verbs that end with u where the mora before ends in o. This "ou" combination is not pronounced as long o but the two sounds individually.

Cultural Note: Kwannon is the Buddhist deity of beauty. 

I'm Moving!

I will moving the think tank, which is myself, to a new location this weekend and will be low on funds for a while. New lessons are still being made, but any donations at this time would greatly be appreciated.
Aside from the Donation tab, there are also two GoFundMe campaigns to help out. 

https://www.gofundme.com/remastering-japanese-curriculum?utm_source=internal&utm_medium=email&utm_content=campaign_link_t&utm_campaign=welcome

https://www.gofundme.com/fixing-vehicle