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第240課: Reduplication: Adjectival Nouns

Reduplication in adjectival nouns is somewhat more complicated than for nouns or adjectives. The reason for this is that as we’ve learned before, whether to use na な or no の is a bit all over the place, and in addition to that, many of the phrases shown here may also have alternate uses as adverbs.

Just as before, some examples of reduplication in adjectival nouns derive from nouns, adjectives, adjectival nouns, verbs, and even onomatopoeic expressions. However, you will be disappointed that the number of reduplicated adjectival nouns is dwindling in Modern Japanese.

・From Nouns: Kazukazu [no] 数々(の)- Numerous
・From Adjectives: Atsuatsu [no] 熱々(の) - Piping hot
・From Adjectival Nouns: Boroboro [na/no] ぼろぼろ(な・の) - Run-down
・ From Verbs: Tobitobi [na] 飛び飛び(な) - Scattered here and there
・From Onomatopoeia: Pikapika [no/na] ぴかぴか(の・な)- Sparkling

Grammatical restraints are just as all over the place as the etymologies of these instances of reduplication. Most instances can be used as adverbs by using ni に, which is no different than the majority of adjectival nouns. However, some may only be used to the extent of ni naru になる, and so playing with each one to see how much it can be used in is necessary. 

Examples

From Nouns 

1. 社会(しゃかい)()ると数々(かずかず)問題(もんだい)直面(ちょくめん)する。
    Shakai ni deru to kazukazu no mondai ni chokumen suru.
    When you enter society, you encounter numerous problems.

2. 種々(しゅじゅ)対策(たいさく)(こう)じる。
    Shuju no taisaku wo kōjiru.
    To take all sorts of measures.  

3. 色々(いろいろ)場所(ばしょ)にポケモンが生息(せいそく)しています。
     Iroiro na basho ni pokemon ga seisoku shite imasu.
     Pokemon inhabit various places.

4. お(にく)程々(ほどほど)(あじ)値段(ねだん)割高(わりだか)です。
    Oniku wa hodohodo no aji de nedam mo waridaka desu.
    As for the meat, the price is also fairly expensive with a moderate taste.

5. (かれ)元々(もともと)結婚願望(けっこんがんぼう)がなかった。
    Kare wa motomoto, kekkon gambō ga nakatta.
    He had no desire to marry from the start.

Usage Note: Motomoto 元々 may be used as an adverb without the need of any particle.

6. 元々(もともと)意味(いみ)はご(ぞん)じですか。
    Motomoto no imi wa gozonji desu ka?
    Do you know what the original meaning is?

7. 帰宅(きたく)(おそ)くなったりしますが、営業職(えいぎょうしょく)としては並々(なみなみ)残業(ざんぎょう)かと(おも)います。
    Kitaku ga osoku nattari shimasu ga, eigyōshoku to shite wa naminami no zangyō ka to omoimasu.
    Coming home is sometimes late or what not, but I think that’s ordinary overtime for a business job.


From Adjectives

8. ピリ(から)熱々(あつあつ)キムチをご(はん)一緒(いっしょ)()べました。
    Pirikara de atsuatsu no kimuchi wo gohan to issho ni tabemashita.
    I ate my meal/cooked rice with spicy and piping hot kimchi.

9. 久々(ひさびさ)カレーを(つく)った。
    Hisabisa ni karē wo tsukutta.
    I made curry after a long while.


From Adjectival Nouns

10. (おっと)結婚(けっこん)するまでぼろぼろの(ふく)()ていました。
      Otto wa kekkon suru made boroboro no fuku wo kite imashita.
      My husband worse ragged clothes up until we got married.


From Verbs

11. 亮太君(りょうたくん)彼女(かのじょ)(いき)()()えになるほど(あつ)いキスをした。
      Ryōta-kun wa kanojo ni iki ga taedae ni naru hodo atsui kisu wo shita.
     Ryota gave her such a warm kiss so strong it left her gasping.

12. (いろ)とりどりに(はな)()いています。
      Iro toridori ni hana ga saite imasu.
     Multi-colored flowers are blooming.

13. 空白(くうはく)()()びになっている
      K
ūhaku ga tobitobi ni natte iru.
     
Empty spaces are scattered everywhere.


From Four Character Idioms

14. 奇々怪々(ききかいかい)事件(じけん)(あざ)やかに()()かしていく。
      Kikikaikai na jiken wo azayaka ni tokiakashite iku.
      I will vividly dispel bizarre cases.

Word Note: 奇々怪々 is rare and would usually be replaced with the simpler kikai 奇怪 from which it derives.


From Onomatopoeia

15. ぴかぴかの()()(もど)しましょう。
      Pikapika no ha wo torimodoshimashō.
      Restore one’s sparkling teeth!


From Prefixes

16. 周辺諸国(しゅうへんしょこく)にもその影響(えいきょう)伝播(でんぱ)し、諸々(もろもろ)事情(じじょう)によって崩壊(ほうかい)していったとのことでした。
Shūhen shokoku ni mo sono eikyō ga dempa shi, moromoro no jijō ni yotte hōkai shite itta to no koto deshita.
That effect propagated to all the neighboring countries as well, which led to them collapsing under all kinds of circumstances.

17. 諸々(もろもろ)了解(りょうかい)しました。
     Moromoro, ryōkai shimashita.
     Rodger that to everything.

Usage Note: Moromoro 諸々 may be used as an adverb without the need of any particle. 

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