第2課: Pronunciation II: Consonants

In our second lesson on pronunciation, we will learn about how to pronounce the consonants of Japanese. Several of them are unique in that they don't exist in English, and so some time will be needed to get them down. Just as was the case in Lesson 1, English letters will be used to transcribe Japanese words (Rōmaji). 

Unvoiced Consonants

What are Unvoiced Consonants? 

A consonant is a speech sound that obstructs airflow from the lungs. To understand what an "unvoiced" consonant is, it's necessary to know what a "voiced" consonant is. A "voiced" sound is a sound that causes the vocal folds in the throat to vibrate. You can verify this by putting your hand over your Adam's apple, where your vocal folds are located, as you speak. Voiced consonants include sounds like /b/ and /d/. They're not the only things that are voiced, though, as vowels are also examples of "voiced" sounds.

Conversely, an "unvoiced" sound is a sound that does not cause the vocal folds to vibrate. Examples of unvoiced consonants include /p/ and /t/. When you pronounce something like /ka/, you feel the contrast between non-voiced and voiced sounds, with /k/ being unvoiced and /a/ being voiced. 

In English, unvoiced consonants are typically pronounced with a lot of aspiration. Aspiration refers to the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of certain kinds of consonants. For example, pronounce the word "king" with one hand directly in front of your mouth. If your pronunciation is native(-like), you should notice a puff of air hitting your hand. This is what aspiration is. In Japanese, unvoiced consonants tend to be slightly more aspirated than they are in languages like Spanish but not nearly as noticeable as in English or Korean. 


The Unvoiced Consonants of Japanese  

The basic unvoiced consonants of Japanese are /k/, /s/, /t/, /h/, and /p/. Overall, all these consonants are less aspirated than their English counterparts. Other differences exist, of course, which is why each consonant will be introduced individually.

Pronouncing /k/

Just as is the case in English, /k/ is made by placing the back of the tongue against the soft palate in the back of the mouth. 

 Kuki Kaki Oyster Keika Progress

Pronouncing /t/

/t/ is made by placing the blade of the tongue behind the upper teeth. When the vowel /u/ follows /t/, it becomes [ts]. This is an example of an allophone. An allophone is a variation of the same consonant in the confounds of a particular language. This [ts] is the same as the /ts/ consonant cluster found in words like "its" in English. Unlike English, you must never drop the "t" in [ts] in Japanese. This means that "tsunami" is not pronounced as /sunami/. It's pronounced as /tsu.na.mi/.

Additionally, /t/ becomes [ch] when followed by the vowel /i/. However, the [ch] in Japanese is not like the "ch" in "chair." The Japanese [ch] is produced by first stopping air flow and then placing the blade of the tongue right behind the gum line while the middle of the tongue touches the hard palate of the mouth. 

 Take Bamboo Tochi Land Tsuki Moon

Pronouncing /s/ 

The consonant /s/ is pronounced just like it is in English, but it becomes [sh] when followed by /i/. When pronouncing [sh], the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate of the mouth. Note that [sh] is made not as farther back in the mouth as is the case in English.

 Isu Chair Keisatsu Police Shiitsu (Bed) sheet(s)

Pronouncing /h/ & /p/ 

/p/ isn't all that common because most words with /p/ come from other languages. Both /p/ and /h/ are pronounced the same as in English, but /h/  has two allophones. When followed by /i/, /h/ has sounds most like the "h" in "hue." When followed by /u/, it becomes [f]. The Japanese [f], though, is created by bringing the lips together and blowing air through them without using the teeth.

 Hako Box Hifu Skin Futsuu Ordinary Penki Paint

More Example Words

 Asa Morning Te Hand(s) Koko Here Sake Alcohol
 Ashi Foot/leg Shiai Match/game Pasupooto Passport Sake Salmon
 Katsu To win Tsuaa Tour Aka Red Pai Pie/pi
 Ka Mosquito Suutsu Suit Soto Outside Tsuchi Dirt/earth
 Ase Sweat Satoo Sugar Tako Octopus/kite Chika Underground
 Kako Past Heishi Soldier Hoshi Star Kutsu Shoes
 Hi Fire/day Kotatsu Kotatsu Tsukau To use  Kasa Umbrella


Vowel Devoicing 

When the vowels /i/ and /u/ are in between and/or after unvoiced consonants--/k/, /t/, /s/, and /p/ along with their respective allophones--they become devoiced (silent). Devoicing is a very distinctive feature of Standard Japanese pronunciation. As an example, the phrase for "good morning" sounds like "o-ha-yo-o go-za-i-ma-s". However, it is important to note that many speakers, especially those that don't come from East Japan, do not devoice vowels. 

Practice: Pronounce the words below with the underlined vowels devoiced.

Kushami (Sneeze) Tafu (Tough) Hito(↓) (Person) 

Voiced Consonants

The unvoiced consonants and their allophones mentioned above all have a voiced consonant counterpart. For every voiced consonant, its pronunciation is the same as its unvoiced counterpart minus voicing. 

 Unvoiced Counterpart Voiced Counterpart
 /k/ /g/
 /s/ /z/
 /sh/ /j/
 /t/ /d/
 /ts/ /dz/
 /ch/ /dj/
 /h/ (and allophones) /b/
 /p/ /b/

There are a few peculiarities that need to be discussed. However, before going into too much detail, /j/ and /dj/ will be mentioned later in this lesson. 

1. /z/ typically becomes [dz] at the start of words. /dz/ tends to become [z] inside words, but this isn't always so. /z/ sounds like the "z" in "zoo," whereas /dz/ sounds like the "ds" in "kids." However, it is important to note that many speakers cannot tell the difference between the two sounds.

2. /h/, its allophones, and /p/ correspond with /b/. /b/ is made by bringing the lips together and then releasing them. This means its articulation is the same as /p/ but not as /h/. 

3. /g/ can be pronounced as /ng/ inside words. This pronunciation is particularly common in the north and east of Japan. 

Try pronouncing the following example words.

 Sokudo Speed Baka Idiot Zutsuu Headache
 Tsu(d)zuki Continuance Kaze Wind Deeto A date
 Kazu Number Kage Shadow Gitaa Guitar
 Bataa Butter Toge Thorn Doku Poison


More Voiced Consonants 

There are also voiced consonants that do not have unvoiced counterparts. These sounds are listed in the chart below.

 [n] Made with the blade of the tongue on the back of the upper teeth with /a/, /e/, and /o/, behind the ridge of the mouth with /i/ (like in news), and behind the teeth with /u/ (like in noon).
 [m] Pronounced by bringing the two lips together just as in English.
 [r]

Its pronunciation varies drastically. It is typically pronounced as a flap, which is only seen in American English as the "t" in many words such as "water." At the beginning of a word, it sounds almost like /d/. Sometimes it's pronounced as a trill or like /l/.

 [y] Pronounced the same in English by bringing the tongue up to the hard palate. This means it is a palatal consonant. 
 [w] Its pronunciation is very similar to the Japanese /u/. Rather than protruding your lips, you compress them. It is only used with the vowels /a/ and /o/, but its use with /o/ won't even become important until later on in your studies.

The differences in pronunciation detailed above make Japanese sound significantly different from English. Many sounds tend to be closer to the teeth, which is the case for [n] and [r], and movement of the tongue and parts of the mouth are more limited in range. To practice pronouncing these consonants, try saying the following words out loud. 

 Fune Boat Neko Cat Mune Chest
 Yowai Weak Yakusoku Promise Kawa River
 Mura Village Umi Sea Tana Shelf
 Kami God Kami Hair/paper Yubi Finger
 Wana Trap Karada Body Rei Example/zero

Palatal Consonants

Palatal consonants are made by the body of the tongue touching against the hard palate of the mouth. In Japanese, these consonants are usually limited to the vowels /a/, /u/, and /o/, and they're all created with the help of the consonant /y/. First, we'll look at those palatal consonants shown below in the chart.

 Consonant C + /a/ C + /u/ C + /o/
 /y/ /ya/ /yu/ /yo/
 /ky/ /kya/ /kyu/ /kyo/
 /gy/ /gya/ /gyu/ /gyo/
 /ny/ /nya/ /nyu/ /nyo/
 /hy/ /hya/ /hyu/ /hyo/
 /py/ /pya/ /pyu/ /pyo/
 /by/ /bya/ /byu/ /byo/
 /my/ /mya/ /myu/ /myo/
 /ry/ /rya/ /ryu/ /ryo/

Usage Note: In loan-words, these consonants may be used with other vowels. 

Most of these combination are very common in Japanese. They are most frequently found in words that come from Chinese. Below are some examples.

 Hyoo Vote Kyaku Customer Kyuu Nine
 Myoo Weird Hyaku 100 Kyoo Today
 Myaku Pulse Ryuu Dragon Byooki Illness
 Gyaku Reverse Ryoo Quantity Ryaku Abbreviation

Other Palatal Consonants  

The remaining palatal sounds that have yet to be looked at are /sh/, /ch/, /j/, and /dj/. These palatal consonants aren't just allophones of /s/, /t/, /z/, or /d/ respectively. In fact, they are full-fledged consonants that can be used with any vowel.

 Shuu Week Kaisha Company Ocha Tea
 Choosa Investigation Chero Cello Shefu Chef
 Shooko Proof Shima Island Jiko Accident
 Kaji Housework/fire Jookyoo Situation Jukyoo Confucianism

Pronunciation Note: The Japanese /j/ is like the j-sound in "seizure." /dj/, on the other hand, sounds more like the j-sound in "judge."  /j/ and /dj/ are merged completely as [dj] for most speakers, with [j] becoming a less common pronunciation. [j] is usually not used at the start of words or before the moraic nasal (see below). 

Long Consonants

Consonants may be lengthened in Japanese just like vowels. When you make a long consonant, the sound is perceived as sounding harder. The length of time you use to pronounce it increases from one mora to somewhere in between one and two morae. However, speakers conceptualize long consonants as being two morae.

The consonants that are typically doubled in Japanese are non-voiced consonants. These consonants include /p/, /k/, /t/, /s/, /sh/, /ch/, and /ts/. As far as transcribing them is concerned, they will be written as /pp/, /kk, /tt/, /ss/, /ssh/, /tch/, and /tts/ respectively. 

 Shippai Failure Matchi A match Yokka Four days Zasshi Magazine
 Happa Leaf/leaves Kokka Nation Shuppatsu Departure Hassoo Conception
 Kassooro Runway Satchi Inferring Sakka Author Sakkaa Soccer

Usage Note: Voiced consonants are only voiced in a handful of loanwords from other languages, but even then they're usually pronounced as their long unvoiced counterparts.

The Moraic Nasal

There is a special consonant in Japanese called the "moraic nasal." It counts as a mora on its own. Although usually transcribed as an "n" in some fashion, its pronunciation varies depending on the environment. In its basic understanding, it is what's called a uvular "n" that is best transcribed as /N/. The uvula is back in the mouth, but when you pronounce it, the mouth constricts as if you were producing a regular /n/, which makes it sound more like the /n/ you're used to hearing but not quite.

This sound has a lot of allophones because it assimilates (becomes more similar) with the sound that follows. Because things can get quite complicated, we'll go over each situation separately with plenty of examples along the way. In Standard Japanese, this sound can't start words, but it is still quite complicated.

  • Pronounced as [m].

When /N/ is before a /p/, /b/, or /m/, it becomes [m]. This means that /m/ can in fact be a doubled with the aid of /N/. 

 Sampo A walk Shimpai Worry Kampeki Perfect
 Bimboo Destitute Kambu Executive Sembei Rice cracker
 Sammyaku Mountain range Tammatsu Device Chimmi Delicacy
  • Pronounced as [n].
When /N/ is before /t/, /d/, /n/, /r/, it becomes [n]. When before /t/, /d/, and /n/, the blade of the tongue is used, and when before /r/, the tip of the tongue is used, but in any case, the natural pronunciation of these consonants will result in you pronounce [n] correctly. Incidentally, by using this sound change, /n/ can become long.

 Sontoku Loss and gain Sentaku Choice/laundry Kantoo The Kanto Region
 Kondate Menu Shindai Bed Kandoo Impression
 Minna Everyone Tennai Inside store Tennoo Emperor
 Shinrai Faith Kanri Management Shinri Mentality
  • Pronounced as [ng].
When /N/ is before /k/ and /g/, it becomes [ng]. Because /n/ is pronounced the same way in English under these circumstances, this [ng] will be spelled as "n" for simplicity.
 
 Shinka Evolution Kankaku Feeling Sanka Participation
 Kingyo Gold fish Kango Sino-Japanese word Kangae Idea
  • Pronounced as [ny].
When before /ch/ or /dj, it is pronounced in the same place of the mouth as these consonants. This technically makes it an [ny] with the "y" only indicating that it's palatal. Remember that /ch/ and /dj/ are pronounced by temporarily stopping the flow of air at the gum line in the mouth. This is where [ny] is produced. If a vowel were to follow /ny/--separate from the [ny] of /N/ being discussed now--you'd hear the "y." Since the "y" here is only meant to indicate where in the mouth this variant is pronounced, it will simply be denoted as "n."
 
 Shinchuu Brass Tanchiki Detector Sanchoo Summit
 Kanja Patient Tanjoobi Birthday Shinjuku Shinjuku

Transcription Note: Typically, /dj/ is spelled as "j" since /j/ is largely pronounced as [dj].

  • Pronounced as [ũ].   

When before vowels, /y/, /w/, /s/, /sh/, /z/, /h/, and /f/, /N/ sounds like a nasal vowel from the back of the mouth. At any rate, the vowel before /N/ is always nasalized, but when /N/ is followed by a vowel, all you may hear is a really nasal vowel and then the following vowel. Typically, this /N/ is usually just a very nasal ũ. Although this is usually spelled as "n" for simplicity, it'll be spelled as "ũ" below.

 Taũ'i Unit Koũwaku Perplexity Deũsha Train
 Kaũzei Tariff Kiũyuu Finance  Kaũsai The Kansai Region

Pronunciation Notes:

1. When before /z/, some speakers pronounced /N/ as [n].  
2. /Deũsha/ may also be pronounced as [deũsha].

  • Pronounced as [N]/[m]/[ũ]. 

  At the end of words, /N/'s default pronunciation is [N]. However, there are plenty of speakers that pronounce it like a nasal vowel as seen above in this position. In singing, it will even be pronounced as [m]. This is actually the case for any instance of /N/ in singing. For the purpose of this section, [N] will be written below as "N."

 NihoN Japan KaN Can  HoN Book

Many of these sound changes should come naturally since the English /n/ undergoes similar changes under the same environments. However, you should not replace /N/ with the English /n/ except in the situations described above. Of course, regardless of the situation, remember to pronounce it as its own mora.


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