第48課: Adjectives: Onaji 同じ

The adjective for same is onaji 同じ. As simple as this may be, conjugating it is not. It is for this reason that it has been avoided. Although we haven't looked into why things are the way they are, this is one instance where etymology is rather important to understand how it works. 

Same is not the Same

Long ago, onaji was like all the other adjectives. It wasn’t the only one that ended in /ji/. All the other ones, though, evolved to end in /jii/ instead. It is for this reason we have adjectives like susamajii 凄まじい (fierce/tremendous) and mutsumajii 睦まじい (harmonious). Had it remained as onashi like it was even further back in time, it might be just like all the other adjectives, but now its conjugations are hybrid between adjectives and adjectival nouns.

 Form Plain Speech Polite Speech
 Non-Past 同じだ
Onaji da
 同じです
Onaji desu
 Past 同じだった
Onaji datta
 同じでした
Onaji deshita
 Negative 同じ{では・じゃ}ない
Onaji [de wa/ja] nai
 同じ{では・じゃ}ないです
Onaji [de wa/ja] nai desu
同じ{では・じゃ}ありません
Onaji [de wa/ja] arimasen
 Negative Past 同じ{では・じゃ}なかった
Onaji [de wa/ja] nakatta
 同じ{では・じゃ}なかったです
Onaji [de wa/ja] nakatta desu

同じ{では・じゃ}ありませんでした
Onaji [de wa/ja] arimasendeshita

 Before Nouns 同じ
Onaji
 
 Before Nominalizer No 同じな
Onaji na
 
 Adverbial Form 同じ
Onaji
同じく
Onajiku
同じに
Onaji ni
同じように
Onaji yō ni
 
 Te て Form 同じで
Onaji de
 同じでして
Onaji deshite

Although its conjugations are more or less an amalgam of adjectives and adjectival nouns, some of its forms deserve extra addition, and because this is the case, we will spend a little more time seeing how its various forms are used.


Typical Conjugations

1. 結果(けっか)(おな)じだったよ。
Kekka wa onaji datta yo.
The results were the same.

2. ずっと(おな)じじゃないですか。
Zutto onaji ja nai desu ka?
Is it not always the same?

3. 日本語(にほんご)(おな)じですね。
Nihongo to onaji desu ne.
It’s the same as Japanese, huh.

4. これは人間(にんげん)(おな)じで、一番多(いちばんおお)いのは、ガンです。
Kore wa ningen to onaji de, ichiban ōi no wa, gan desu.
This is the same as humans, and the most common is cancer.

5. 昨日(きのう)とおんなじだよ。
Kinō to on’naji da yo.
It’s the same as yesterday.

Pronunciation Note: Onaji may also emphatically be pronounced as /on’naji/.


Before Nouns

6. (かれ)は、1(いち)年間(ねんかん)くらい(おな)(ふく)()ていました。
Kare wa, ichinenkan kurai onaji fuku wo kite imashita.
He wore the same clothes for about a year.

7. ほぼ(おな)意味(いみ)です。
Hobo onaji imi desu.
It has almost the same meaning.

8. (ぼく)たちは(おな)学校(がっこう)(かよ)っています。(Male Speech)
Bokutachi wa onaji gakkō ni kayotte imasu.
We go to the same school.

9. 皆同(みなおな)(あな)のムジナだな。
Mina onaji ana no mujina da na.
They are all birds of a feather.

Phrase Note: The Japanese expression for this is literally “badgers of the same hole.”

10. (わたし)たちは(おな)(とし)()まれました。
Watashitachi wa onaji toshi umaremashita.
We were born in the same year.

11. (わたし)(おな)(どし)(ひと)結婚(けっこん)しています。
Watashi wa onaidoshi no hito to kekkon shite imasu.
I’m married to someone of the same age.

Phrase Note: Onaidoshi 同い年 is a set phrase meaning “the same age.”


Before Nominalizer No

When the particle no の is used in turning what precedes into a noun phrase for whatever reason, if onaji 同じ is what’s directly before it, na な must intervene. We’ve already seen how no/n desu (ka) の・んです(か) is used in sentences in seeking an answer, and we learned how na な is needed with adjectival nouns. In this case, onaji 同じ functions like any other adjectival noun.

12. 音質(おんしつ)は、CD(シーディー)(おな)じなのです。
Onshitsu wa, shiidii to onaji na no desu.
That’s because the sound quality is the same as a CD.

13. 何故(なぜ)惑星(わくせい)公転方向(こうてんほうこう)(おな)じなんですか。
Naze, wakusei no kōten hōkō wa onaji na n desu ka?
Why is that the direction of revolution for the planets is the same?

14. 服装(ふくそう)(おな)じなので、見分(みわ)けがつきにくいですね。
Fukusō ga onaji na node, miwake ga tsukinikui desu ne.
Their clothes are the same, so it’s hard to distinguish them, huh.

Particle Note: The particle node ので is composed of the particle no の and the te て form of da だ. Put together, node のでmeans “because.”


Adverbial Form: Onaji ni 同じに

15. 私達(わたしたち)結果(けっか)(どう)じになりました。
Watashitachi no kekka to onaji ni narimashita.
(They’re results) became the same as our results.

16. 全部(ぜんぶ)(おな)じに()えます。
Zembu onaji ni miemasu.
They all look the same.

17. 実印(じついん)銀行印(ぎんこういん)(どう)じにすることはできるんですか。
Jitsuin to ginkōin wo onaji ni suru koto wa dekiru n desu ka?
Is it possible to have one’s registered seal the same as one’s bank transaction seal?


Adverbial Form: Onaji yō ni 同じように

This form has a meaning of “similarly/like.”

18. スパゲティをレシピと(おな)じように(つく)った。
Supageti wo reshipi to onaji yō ni tsukutta.
I made spaghetti like the recipe.

19. (ねこ)からは周囲(しゅうい)(ひと)(おな)じように()えますか。
Neko kara wa shūi ga hito to onaji yō ni miemasu ka?
Does one’s surroundings look the same from a cat’s perspective?

20. 普通(ふつう)(ひと)(おな)じように仕事(しごと)出来(でき)ません。
Futsū no hito to onaji yō ni shigoto ga dekimasen.
I can’t work like normal people.

21. 過去(かこ)(おな)じように設定(せってい)してください。
Kako to onaji yō ni settei shite kudasai.
Please have settings be like they were in the past.

22. (さる)たちはいつもと(おな)じように(あそ)んでいます。
Sarutachi wa itsu mo to onaji yō ni asonde imasu.
The monkeys are playing like they always do.


Adverbial Form: A + Onajiku 同じく + B

The form onajiku 同じく is reminiscent of when it was more like a regular adjective. In typical speech and writing, it isn't used that much, but when it is used, its meaning is most similar to "ditto" and "same as."   

23. (かれ)(おな)じく(わたし)もイギリス出身(しゅっしん)です。
Kare to onajiku watashi mo igirisu shusshin desu.
Ditto to him, I too am from England.

24. 昨日(きのう)(おな)じく今日(きょう)(あめ)だ。
Kinō to onajiku kyō mo ame da.
Same as yesterday, today is also rain.

25a. ()(おな)じくする。
Ki wo onajiku suru.
25b. ()(いつ)にする
Ki wo itsu ni suru.
To have the same way of doing.

26a. (こころざし)(おな)じくする。
Kokorozashi wo onajiku suru.
26b. 他人(たにん)(おな)じように(かん)じる。
Tanin to onaji yō ni kanjiru.
To be like-minded.


Adverbial Form: Onaji 同じ

When used in conjunction with the particle nara なら, which creates “if” statements when making suggestions, onaji 同じ becomes an adverb meaning “anyhow” and is interchangeable with dōse どうせ.

27. (おな)()うなら、地元(じもと)()った(ほう)がいい。
Onaji kau nara, jimoto de katta hō ga ii.
Anyhow, if you’re going to buy, it’s best to buy local.

Grammar Note: Verb + -ta hō ga ii た方がいい is a grammatical pattern meaning “it’s best to…”

28. (おな)()るなら、(すこ)しでも(とく)したい。
Onaji uru nara, sukoshi demo toku shitai.
Anyhow, if I'm going to sell it, I want to get at least some profit.

Grammar Note: Verb + -tai (to omou) たい(と思う)is a grammatical pattern meaning “want to…”

29. (おな)じお(かね)がかかるなら、自分(じぶん)(いえ)()てたいと(おも)う。
Onaji okane ga kakaru nara, jibun no ie wo tatetai to omou.
Anyhow, if it's going to cost money, I’d want to build my own house.


Dō- 同  

You will also discover a lot of words that start with the character 同 when read as in Sino-Japanese compounds. Most of these words are literary, but this is not always the case. For example, the word for sympathy is dōjō 同情, which is simple the characters for “same” and “emotion” put together.

30. 上記(じょうき)利用規約(りようきやく)同意(どうい)します。
Jōki, riyō kiyaku ni dōi shimasu.
You agree to the above user agreement.

31. 由香里(ゆかり)さんの彼氏(かれし)(わたし)(おっと)同一人物(どういつじんぶつ)(ちが)いありません!
Yukari-san no kareshi to watashi no otto wa doitsu jimbutsu ni chigai arimasen!
Yukari’s boyfriend and my husband are no doubt the exact same individual!

32. 前回(ぜんかい)同様(どうよう)実験(じっけん)開始(かいし)しました。
Zenkai to dōyō ni jikken wo kaishi shimashita.
We began the experiment similarly to last time.

33. 英語(えいご)同音異義語(どうおんいぎご)(おし)えてください。
Eigo no dō’on igigo wo oshiete kudasai.
Please teach me English homophones.

34. 看護師(かんごし)医者(いしゃ)同等(どうとう)ですか。
Kangoshi wa isha to dōtō desu ka?
Are nurses equivalent to doctors?

35. 被災者(ひさいしゃ)同情(どうじょう)します。
Hisaisha ni dōjō shimasu.
I sympathize with disaster victims.

36. 東南(とうなん)アジアの国々(くにぐに)隣国同士(りんごくどうし)(なか)(わる)いですか。
Tōnan ajia no kuniguni mo ringoku dōshi wa naka ga warui desu ka?
Why is it that neighboring countries among Southeast Asian nations have such bad relations?

37. 同志(どうし)よ、()くぞ。
Dōshi yo, iku zo!
Comrades, let’s go!

Phrase Note: In Mandarin Chinese, 同志 means "homosexual." However, in Japanese, it is a somewhat uncommon word meaning “comrade.”

38. (わたし)同性(どうせい)()()っています。
Watashi wa dōsei to tsukiatte imasu.
I’m dating someone of the same sex.

39. (わたし)(まった)同感(どうかん)です。
Watashi mo mattaku dōkan desu.
I completely agree/feel the exact same.

40. 外国人(がいこくじん)同僚(どうりょう)喧嘩(けんか)になった。
Gaikokujin no dōryō to kenka ni natta.
I got into an argument with a foreign colleague.