This lesson is all about 抜く. Now, what may be so special about 抜く? It so happens to be used in ways that brings on some somewhat complicated grammar.
抜く means "to extract" or "to remove" and is used in important idioms. It is used in compounds to provide a sense of thoroughness. In other verbs, it describes a state of extreme degree. This is related to the sense of something being thorough.
|To shoot through||射抜く||いぬく||To see through||見抜く||みぬく|
|To excerpt||書き抜く||かきぬく||To gouge out||刳り抜く||くりぬく|
|To pierce through||突き抜く||つきぬく||To hit through||ぶち抜く||ぶちぬく|
|To dig through||掘り抜く||ほりぬく||To pass (car)||追い抜く||おいぬく|
|To select through||選り抜く||え・よりぬく||To win through||勝ち抜く||かちぬく|
|To cut through||切り抜く||きりぬく||To know thoroughly||知り抜く||しりぬく|
|To persist through||耐え抜く||たえぬく||To jump through||出し抜く||だしぬく|
He persevered through a harsh job.
Don't slack off!
Literally: Don't extract your hand (away).
Persisting until the end is difficult.
Can he make it out alive?
To live through the Warring States Period.
Word Note: The intransitive version of 抜く is ～抜ける. It too finds itself attaching to verbs to emphasize a meaning of
To pass through adversity.
As you can see, all of these patterns utilize taking the 連用形 of 抜く and making things difficult with particles. 「Xぬき｛で・に｝（は）Y（ない）」 shows that in the process of doing Y, there are plenty of important things, but from them, if you were to drop X, you wouldn't be able to do Y. As a consequence, in the last sentence, you couldn't replace 参加 with something like 協力. For this, you would have to use ～なし｛で・に｝. What causes either で or に incorrect is based on whether the phrase is dynamic 動態 (で) or static 静態 (に).
7. ちょっと私ぬき｛〇 では・△ には｝イベントが始まらないんじゃなかったの？（女性語的)
Without me, the event wouldn't start, no?
8. 僕ぬき｛で・△ に ｝そんなこと始めるなんてできないよ。
You couldn't even start that without me.
Since I'm having dinner soon, please continue the game without me.
10. 昼ご飯ぬき｛〇で・ Xに｝頑張ってるんですか。
So you're trying without having had lunch?
(We) won't be able to win victory without that guy.
There's no way I can work without having breakfast.
Leaving jokes aside, let's seriously talk with each other.
As you would imagine, ～ぬきの is used in modifying other noun phrases.
One without salt, please.
Ramen without mushrooms, please.
～を抜きにして means "leaving out". This means that an X is should be left out for the realization of B. Of course, if the sentence is negative, then the opposite is true.
Leaving jokes aside, if you don't go home pretty soon, it won't be good.
18. 堅苦しい挨拶｛は抜きに・抜きで｝しましょう。（Notice the difference in particle usage)
Let's do without the ceremonious greetings.
19a. 力強い意志を抜きに（して）戦い続けることはできぬぞ。 (Old-man; 武士 talk)
19b. 強気でなければ戦い続けることはできぬぞ。(Old-man; 武士 talk)
Without a powerful will, you will not be able to continue fighting.