第259課: Relation and Non-Relation: ~いかん、~にもかかわらず、~もかまわず、~をものともせず(に)、~をよそに、~にめげず(に)、& ~ならいざしらず

Although it may seem while you're reading this lesson that all of these grammar points are the same, please pay attention to when, with what, and how they are used. 


  いかん is a noun and means "circumstances", "regards to", or "based on". It doesn't use の to follow other nouns, and it may also be used as an adverb to mean "in what way?". This pattern is used when a situation is decided or changed according to how something is. It attaches to words with various differences or breadth. What follows after are sentences with meanings of various changing possibilities and or commitment. 

Frequency Note: Regardless of how this word is used, its frequency in the spoken language is low but not impossible.  


1a. 成否は君の努力()いかんにかかっている。 (やや書き言葉的)
1b. 成果は君の努力にかかっている。
1c. 成果は君の努力次第だ。(もっと自然)
      The outcome will depend on your efforts.

2a. 結果は君の決定いかんだ。
2b. 結果は君の決定次第だ。(More natural)
      The outcome depends on your decision.

3a. 結果いかんでは次のレベルに行けます。
3b. 結果次第では次のレベルに行けます。(More natural)  
     Based on your results, you can go to the next level.

4a. 成績いかんで、大学に入学できるよ。
4b. 成績次第で、大学に入学できるよ。(More natural)
      Based on your grades, you may able to go to college.

Phrasing Note: As you can see, this usage can be very similar to 次第だ. 次第だ is more natural in the spoken language.

5. 履修登録者数りしゅうとうろくしゃすういかんでは、受講者抽選じゅこうしゃちゅうせんを行わなければならないかもしれない。
      Depending on the number of people who register, we might have to select the class members. 

6. 今日の検査の結果いかんで入院するかしないかを決めるのだそうです。
    It sounds that the decision to be hospitalized depends on today's findings.  


 ~いかんに[よらず・かかわらず] and いかんを問わず mean "without regards to...". This pattern should be used to show that there is no relation/influence. Like above, いかん attaches to words with various range/breadth, but the patterns here are then followed by something that won't be affected/influenced. They are very 固い expressions.

漢字 Note: いかん is rarely written as 如何. 


7. 内容のいかんにかかわらず、これを行わない。(固い言い方・法律の文章)
    Without regards to content, (we) will not do this/carry this out.

8. 理由のいかんを問わず、例外を認めません。(固い言い方)
    Without regard to reason, I will not recognize exceptions.

9. 当社は学歴・年齢・過去の実績のいかんを問わず、初任給(しょにんきゅう)一律(いちりつ)です。
    Regardless of one's academic background, age, or accomplishments, at our company, one's initial         salary is uniform.

10. 理由のいかんによらず、殺人は許されないことだ。
      Regardless of the reason, murder is unforgivable.

11. 如何ともしがたい。 
      Impenetrably difficult/There is nothing for it (we can do)

12. 年齢(如何)に関わらずここには入れない。
       You can't enter here regardless of your age.


Having already seen it, you probably already know that this phrase should mean "although/despite/without regards". Unlike all the other speech modals in this lesson, this one is pretty straightforward.  

13. 彼は英語が読めるにもかかわらず話せない。
      Although he can read English, he can't speak it.

14. 彼は年にもかかわらず非常に活動的だ。
      He is very active notwithstanding his age.

15. きりにもかかわらず我々われわれは散歩に出かけました。
      Despite the fog, we went for a walk.

16. 悪天候にもかかわらず、パーティーを開きました。
      We had a party despite that there was bad weather.

17. 晴雨にかかわらず
      Fair or foul

18. 彼女の努力にもかかわらず 
      In spite of her exertions

19. 医師の努力にもかかわらず、お母さんはガンで死んでしまいました。
      Despite the doctor's efforts, mom ended up dying from her cancer.

20. アメリカでは年齢や性別にかかわらず自由があります。
       People have freedom in America regardless of things such as age or sex.

漢字 Note: Although this pattern should be spelled as either 拘(わ)らず・係(わ)らず, 関(わ)らず can be used when the pattern is used to mean "without relation/regard to...". This has been extended by many to be used whenever, so must people just write it in ひらがな to prevent confusion.


This is used when you do something without bothering with something that you usually do.

21. 男は服が濡れるのも構わず、池に落ちた子供を引っ張り上げた。
      The man pulled out the child that fell in the lake without regard to getting his clothes wet.

22. 彼女は、化粧が落ちるのも構わず顔を拭いた。
      She wiped her face without worrying about make-up coming off.

23. 最近は人目も構わず、食べ歩きしている人をよく見かける。
      One sees a lot of people these days eating while walking without any regard about being noticed.


This pattern is used to show that one overcomes and acts despite a damage that would otherwise destroy one's aspirations. It is used to mark the overall bravery of an individual, not oneself. 

24. 今年80歳になる森田さんは、足腰の痛みをものともせず、若い人の指導に励んでいる。
      Mr. Morita who is turning 80 this year is striving to guide the youth despite his leg and loin pains. 

25. 周囲の反対をものともせず、ひたすら意志を通した。
      In disregard of the opposition around (him), (he) earnestly carried out his will. 

26. 祖母は強かった。癌の宣告をものともせず、最期まで明るく振舞った。
      My grandmother was strong. Despite her cancer diagnosis, she was bright until the very end. 

27. 彼は病気をものともせず試合に勝ったよ。
      In spite of his illness, he won in the tournament.

28. この会社は不況をものともせずに、順調に売り上げを伸ばしている。
      This company, despite the recession, is extending its profits favorably. 


This pattern is used to show that one acts without the least care whether something is unrelated or not to oneself. よそ itself either means "outside one's family/group" or "another place."

29. 人々の反対の声をよそに、政府は新しい法律を施行(しこう)しました。
      Without considering the disapproval voice of the people, the government enforced the new law.

30. それを移せば、テレビが置ける。
       If you'll move that, I can place a TV (there).

31. 子どもをよそに親は飲み会ばかりしていた。
       The parents went only to drinking clubs while disregarding their children. 

32. 余所に泊まる。
      To lodge at another family's place.

33. 住民たちの抗議(こうぎ)行動をよそに、軍事基地(きち)の建設計画が進められている。
Without regard to the resident's protests, the plans for the military basis construction are going     forward.

34. 彼女は周囲の反対をよそに、 危険(きけん)な仕事を続けた。
      She continued to do the dangerous job despite the opposition.


This is very similar to ~をものともせず in the sense that it is used after something bad, usually words of illness or misfortune, but this is more literary and far rarer. 

35. 彼女が病気にもめげずに頑張ることがみなを鼓舞こぶさせるのです。
      It's inspiring that she perseveres despite her illness.

Word Note: めげる =弱気になる; (くじ)ける. 

36. 彼は度重(たびかさ)なる不幸にもめげずにまだやる気が残っている。
      He still has the fighting spirit despite perpetual misfortunes.


This pattern means that if X is the case, something might be so, but since the circumstances are completely different, so are the results. It often follows words of extremes like 神、大昔、赤ん坊、 ヒマラヤ、etc. What follows is something opposite of it, showing a sense of dissatisfaction or astonishment.

37. 安いホテルならいざしらず、一流(いちりゅう)ホテルでこんなにサービスが悪いなんて許せない。
If it were a cheap hotel, that's one thing, but such horrible service at a first class hotel is unacceptable.

38. ヒマラヤ登山(とざん)をするのならいざしらず、その辺の山へ行くのにそんなに重装備(じゅうそうび)でなければいけないのか。
If you were climbing the Himalayas, that's one thing, but you have that heavily equipped just to go to the mountain around here?

39. 3歳の子供ならいざしらず、大人がこんなことを知らないなんておかしい。
A three year old is one thing, but an adult not knowing something like this is beyond strange.