第305課: Native Suffixes IV: Verbal 

     Native verbal suffix endings attach to nouns to create new verbal phrases. Some originate from independent verbs while others are purely constructive endings.

 ~がかる ~がる ~ぐむ
 ~さびる ~染みる ~立つ
 ~つく ~付く ~付ける
 ~ばむ ~張る ~びる
 ~ぶる ~めかす ~めく 
 ~やく ~やぐ 

Verbal Suffixes

~ぐむ: something is appearing which had been within something. So, it is used with many physical attributes. 

1.柳()の木々が{()ぐみ・芽吹き}、降り積もった雪が解けてきた。
    The willows and all the trees began to sprout as the snow piles melted.

2. 氷()()()(あし)(つの)ぐむ。
    Ice melts as the reeds sprout forth.

3. 嘲笑あざわらわれて涙ぐんだ。
    I was moved to tears from being scorned at.

4. 君の目が涙ぐんでいるようです。
    Your eyes are watery.


~さびる shows that something behaves like something. It is very rare.

5.かみ・かんさびたやしろ
    
A temple of age and divinity

6. おきなさびる
     Behaving as an old man


~染(じ)みる: often in a negative fashion, either shows that something is stained with something or something is quite felt as such. 

7. 汗染みた。
    It got a sweat stain.

8. 子供じいた真似をするな。
    Don't act childish.

9. 彼の顔は何となく標本じみて見えた。
    His face for some reason or another appeared to be like a specimen. 

10. 年寄り染みた
      Characteristic of aging

11. 油染みた
      Oil-stained 

12. 二階が診察室(しんさつしつ)に待合室、下は技工室(ぎこうしつ)のあの金槌(かなづち)や、(きん)をのばすローラーや、ガラスの炎や、エンジンなんかの、神経質な工場じみた音に加えて、小さい子供が四人もあり、おまけに電車通(でんしゃどおり)だった。
To the second floor there was an examination room and a waiting room, and below, in addition to the iron hammer, metal roller, glass fire, engine, and what not neurotic factory-like noises, there were four small kids, and to make matters worse, it was a street with a tram.  
From 死体紹介人 by 川端康成.


~(だ)つ: characteristics of something in terms of condition and state.

13. 八百長やおちょうレースだと観衆が殺気立った。
      The spectators seethed in rage that it was a rigged race.

14a. 鳥肌()立つ。
14b. 鳥肌が立つ。(Natural)
        To have goosebumps.


~つく: attaches to onomatopoeic words to show a certain kind of condition. 

15. 外国でまごついたことがある?
      Have you gotten confused at a foreign country?

16. むかついてくる。
      To get ticked off.

17. 画面がちらつく。
      For the screen to flicker.

18. 俺の決心がぐらついちまった。(Used by somewhat older men)
      My determination shuddered.

19. 小雨がまだぱらついてる。
      Rain is still sprinkling.


~付(づ)く: shows inseparability or that you cannot part from a certain thing or condition. 

20. インターネットづいてんのよ。(砕けた女性語)
      You're really hooked to the internet.

21. 色づいてくのが分かったんだ。(Casual)
      I knew things were going to start turning.

22. 調子付いている。
      Things are going well.

23. 怖気おじけづいて逃げると!?
      Running away for fear!?

24. 木が根付く。
      For trees to take root. 


~付(づ)ける grants a certain condition.

25. 納税者に義務付ける。
      To obligate the taxpayers.

26. もう一度やってみろと力づけました。
      I encouraged him to try it again once more.

27. 我々は基準として位置づけております。
      We are positioning it as standard.


~ばむ shows that a certain condition appears or holds a certain quality.

28. この黄ばんだ紙は本当に古くなってきたな。
      This yellow paper has really become old, hasn't it?

29. 気色けしきばむ。
     To miff one's anger.

30. むしむしして汗ばむ。
      To feel warm and sweaty.

31. 俺の(わき)の下がじっとり汗染みた。
      My armpits are damp and sweaty.


~張る: persists something and shows that a tendency is even more remarkable. 

32. あまり欲張(よくば)らないで。
      Don't be so greedy.

33. そんなに角張(かくば)っては窮屈(きゅうくつ)だよ。
       Being so ceremonious is quite constraining.

34. 四角張らずに
      Without formality

35. 格式ばる。
      To conform to formalities.

36. あまり気張るな。
      Don't strain yourself.


~びる: is attached to nouns or 形容詞 to show that something is in some sort of condition. 

37. 古びた。
      Worn-out.

38. 大人びて見える。
      To look adult-like.

39. ありゃ(ひな)びた湯治(とうじ)()や。(Dialect; old people)
      That over there's a beat-down health spa resort.


~ぶる: attaches to nouns and the stems of adjectives. "Pretending/acting as such". 

40. 偉()ぶる。
      To swagger.

41. もったいぶるなよ。
      Stop making it such a big deal.

42. 学者ぶる。
      To pretend to be a scholar.


~めかす: is the verbal form of ~めかしい. It shows that you make something out to be...

43. 冗談()めかす。
      To be (half) in joke.

45. きらめかせたあの夜空。
      The brightened night sky.

46. ほのめかしただけだ。
      I only suggested.


~やく: attaches to onomatopoeic phrases to show that one takes on a certain behavior.

47. 耳元で(ささや)く。
      To whisper in the ears.

48. 僕は彼にそっと(つぶや)いた。
      I gently muttered it to him.


~やぐ: attaches to nouns and the stems of adjectives to show that something takes on or behaves to fit a certain appearance.

49. 華()やいだ雰囲気。
      A cheerful atmosphere.

50. 若やいだ声ですね。
      You have a young sounding voice, don't you?

51. 物々()しく()やいで
   Brilliantly and ostentatiously