第304課: Native Suffixes III: Adjectival & Adverbial

There are a lot of endings in Japanese. It is what it is. 

Adjectival and Adverbial

~勝ち: A 形容動詞 conjugating suffix that shows that "something is prone to happen". Often with a negative tone, it's associated with bad/unwanted tendencies. Though it does have 漢字, it is almost always written in ひらがな.

1. 彼女の小説は退屈になりがちだ。
    Her novels tend to become boring.

2. 彼は{怠惰()に・怠けて}走りがちだ。
    He tends to laziness.

3. 学生にありがちな間違いじゃない(か)?
    Isn't that an error tended by students?

4. あいつは職務を(おこた)りがちだ。
    That guy tends to neglect his duties.

     A similar phrase is ともすると meaning "apt to". It may also be seen as ともすれば. 

5. 不注意な政治家はともすると間違いを犯したことにさえ気づかないでしょう。
    A careless politician is apt to not even be aware that he has made a mistake.

6. ともすれば怠けぐせが出る。
    To be apt to have a lazy tendency. 


~がましい: attaches to nouns or a verb's 連用形 to show a certain tendency felt vividly.

7. 婚礼の晴れがましい場に臨む。
    To attend at a grand wedding ceremony place.

8. 差し出がましいようですが...
    I hope it is not too presumptuous of me...

9. おこがましい自称
    An impudent purport

10. うらみがましい
      Reproachful

11. 言い訳がましい。
      Sounds like an excuse.

12. 校長はとても押し付けがましいですね。
      The principal is very pushy, isn't he?

13. 恩着せがましいことを言うな。
      Don't say such condescending things.  


~がわしい: shows that something or an action has a certain tendency. It is quite rare.

14. みだりがわしい話じゃないか。
      Isn't that such a morally corrupt argument? 


~くさい: attaches to nominal phrases or the stem of adjectives to either show that something has a particular smell or a certain feeling to it. 

15. 古臭いな! 
      That's old-fashioned!

16. 彼は酷()くニンニク臭かった。
      He smelled like garlic badly.

17. ガス臭いところだね。
      This is a gassy smelling place isn't it?

18. 陰気いんき臭い小説
      A gloomy novel    


~ぐましい: shows a condition that is starting to appear that attaches to nouns. It is basically exclusive to the noun 涙 "tear". 

19. 涙ぐましい努力をしよう。
     Let's make a painstaking effort to do this.
  


~こいattaches to nouns and either shows that there is a lot of something included or that a certain nature or situation is extreme. It is often accompanied with a 促音. 

20. 脂っこいものを食べない方がいいですよ。
     It's best not to eat fatty foods.

21. 彼は本当にしつこい要求をしてばかりいるセールスマンです。
     He is salesman that really just makes persistent demands.

22. このシロップは粘っこすぎる。
     This syrup is too sticky.


~たらしい: attaches to nouns and the stems of adjectives to give a strong sense of displeasure. A 促音 is often present when used. 

23. 憎たらしそうにすんな。
      Don't be hateful.

24. 嫌みったらしい文句
     A very obscene phrase

25. 長たらしい演説だった。
      It was a lengthy speech.


~ぼったいattaches to adjective stems or 連用形 of verbs. Something is quite so.

26. 寝不足で(まぶた)が本間で()れぼったいさ。
      My eyes are like really puffed up from lack of sleep.

27. 厚ぼったい唇あるね。
      You have some thick lips don't you?    


~めかしい: "something looks like...". Attached to nouns and adjective stems.

28. 予言めかしい。
      Sounds like a prediction.

29. 艶かしい声
      An amorous voice

30. 古めかしい服装を着る。
      To wear old-fashioned clothes.    


~か(な)・~やか(な)・~らか(な): Attach to make adjectives that show a nature. There is a lot of variation as to what gets these and what doesn't. For instance, though かろやか (non-serious) is a standard example, the forms 軽らか and 軽ろか (much rarer) show up in literature. 

31. 仄かな光
      Dim light

32. それは定かな事実ではない。
      That is not a definite fact.

33. 老人にお辞儀を(つつ)ましやかにすべきだ。
     You should bow reservedly to the elderly.

34. 静かな川の流れが美しい。
      The gentle water flow is beautiful.

35. しめやかな葬儀(そうぎ)を行う。
     To hold a solemn funeral service. 

36. 清らかな心身
      Pure body and mind

37. 晴れやかで生気がみなぎった顔。
      A face bright and full of life.

38. 大らかな性格を持つ。
      To have a broad-minded nature.

39. 彼女は高らかに歌い続けた。
      She continued to sing her heart out.

40.海は(おだ)やかです。
     The sea is calm.

41a. 華やかな装い
41b. 派手やかな装い   (ちょっと古風)
        Gorgeous outfit/apparel 

42. つづまやかな文章
      A concise composition  

43. その目は再び若若しくかがやき、その(ほお)には(にお)いやかなためらうような(くれな)いが()した。
      Those eyes youthfully glistened and lustrous rouge, as if to hesitant, shined on her cheeks.
From 軽王子(かるのみこ)衣通姫(そとおりひめ) by 三島由紀夫. 

44. 川の水音のみはとりわけ近く、めずらかな夜の小鳥の(さえず)りかときかれたのだ。
The sound of the river was close among other things, and it sounded like it was the rare, night song of a small bird.
From 軽王子と衣通姫 by 三島由紀夫.

Word Note: めずらか is a rare version of 珍しい, attaching か instead of しい to the root.  


Adverbial 

~すがら: attaches to nouns. It may show that something is amid or that there's nothing else but X. 

45. 雨は夜もすがら降り続いた。
     The rain continued to rain throughout the night.

46. 彼は京都までの道すがら思い出話した。
He reminisced about being along the way Kyoto. 

47. 身すがら = 身一つ
      Just oneself

48. 手すがら
      Nothing else but one's hand