After this lesson, we will transition to native endings that result in non-nominal phrases.
26. ～好きfollows nouns to describe people that like a certain think a lot or a character that is liked a lot by people.
My husband likes to go out.
"That person often travels overseas" "He must be quite adventurous"
An amiable personality
27. ～ずじまい means that something wasn't done and something accidentally ended up happening--しないで終わってしまった. As you can see, it comes from the combination of the old negative auxiliary ず and 終い (end) voiced.
I ended up not meeting with him.
28. ～尽く attaches to nouns and the stems of adjectives. It either shows that something relies entirely on something, something has the sole purpose of something, or what something is based off of. Most of the words used with this are uncommon and are becoming restricted to formal writing.
5. 納得ずくで解約する。 （経済）
To dissolve with mutual consent.
To beat a strong enemy by might.
7b. 計算ずくで戦う。 （より自然）
To fight calculatively.
This is not a job I took on just for gain.
To marry for the money.
To enter a house by force.
To hold down someone's arms with brute force.
29. ～攻め means "offense/attack" and attaches to nouns to show bombardment. In doing so, 攻め becomes voiced as ぜめ.
Is switching to the offensive from the defensive a wise move?
I'll switch to offensive from defensive with this next move!
To force surrender with starvation.
To bombard with questions.
We are bombarded with advertisements.
Everyone is being overwhelmed by e-mails every day.
30. ～だてら shows that something is unfitting of normal quality. This is old-fashioned and essentially not used.
"Unladylike" is used frequently, but we don't say "unmanly-like".
To meddle unlike that of a parent.
31. ～垂れ is a pejorative equivalent to "-ass" and attaches to nouns or adjectives.
32. ～付（つ・づ）け may either be attached to the 連用形 of a verb to show what one always does or attached to a day as "づけ" to show a schedule.
This is the library that I always go to.
Proclamation for the sixth
33. ～詰めshows that an action or condition is continuing. Attach to the 連用形 of verbs.
I was exhausted due to continuous walking.
I have been working while continuing to stand up.
34. ～連れ shows a company of people.
A traveling companion.
It's good to be in groups of threes.
To go hiking with one's family in tow.
35. ～手 is attached to the 連用形 of verbs and denotes the action doer.
He's a windy speaker, isn't he?
He is always an alert listener.
36. ～通し, like ～詰め, shows that something continues as such. It too attaches to the 連用形 of verbs.
It snowed all night long.
I was kept standing.
37. ～通り follows nouns meaning "Street/Avenue" or "in accordance with". Do not confuse with ～通し.
Her address is 6 West Park Street.
To have it one's own way.
These are the results of the prosecution; it was just as expected.
Things are basically just as normal.
38. ～並み means "average/ordinary" As a suffix, it may show a line of similar things such as houses, everything in the same condition, or something of a same level or kind.
I think that Wikipedia is as accurate as Britannica.
The row of houses were completely destroyed.
To be able to see the outline of the row of mountains.
This is average July temperatures.
This kind of face photo ends up showing anyone equally like a wanted criminal.
From 火車 by 宮部みゆき.
Word Note: ひとしなみ, spelled in 漢字 as 等し並, is a 形容動詞 made with the combination of 並み and the stem of 等しい
39. ～抜く as a suffix in the form ～抜き means "without".
I wonder if you can buy potato chips without salt.
Without sugar please.
If you work without lunch, you'll end up losing your health.
To remove stains.
40. ～栄え attaches to the 連用形 of verbs and is used to show a heard or shown advantage. It is limited to the verbs 見る and 聞く.
The music was not pleasing to the ears.
She's not anything to look at at all.
That dress was much to look at.
41. ～端 attaches to the 連用形 of verbs and means "about to start". Its usage is very limited. The first example is a very common phrase with it, but other than that, it is extremely rare. Use on with things you find it used with.
Moment of departure
My little brother began to cry as I was falling asleep.
42. ～っ放し comes from 放す meaning "to unchain". ～っ放し strengthens this meaning by showing how "you leave something...". It's most associated with frequent careless forgetting.
Don't leave the TV on!
Last night I fell asleep leaving the television on.
Try not to leave the lights on when you leave the room, OK?
43. ～張り attaches to personal nouns and means "reminiscent of".
It was weather reminiscent of thunder and lightning.
Landscape paintings reminiscent of Cezanne.
Writing style reminiscent of Shakespeare.
44. ～日means day. It is sometimes unvoiced.
|収集日||しゅうしゅうび||Collection day||締切日||しめきりび||Closing day|
|忌み日||いみび||Unlucky day (astrology)||冬日||ふゆび||Winter day|
45. ～辺 is attached to geographical nouns to mean "-side".
Towns lining the waterside.
I spent the holiday at the seaside.
The storm impelled the big ship to the shoreline.
Historical Note: It's interesting to note that some scholars believe this ending is actually an ancient borrowing from Ainu.
46. ～っぺ is used after names to show familiarity, but it can also be used in a hurtful way. It all depends on context. If you're called a 田舎っぺ, that's not a nice thing. These sorts of nuances don't translate well into English, so keep in mind what this stands for.
66. 花っぺ (Nickname for Hanako)
47. ～（っ）ぽ（っ）ち attaches to demonstrative pronouns or numbers meaning "merely but". This ending is very casual, which explains the speech styles of the example sentences.
68. 1ドルぽっちでは買えねー。(Casual; vulgar)
I can't buy anything with just a dollar.
This is just merely lacking.
48. ～前 attaches to words of number or person to show portion or suitable amount. This suffix oddly does not follow any exception to any counter rules.
To come to age.
To consume food enough for two people.
49. ～向け shows what something is "(intended) for".
I wish I could buy an IMABI textbook for beginners.
When I lived in Japan, I always watched educational programs for adults.
Prime Minister Kan made several nation-wide television addresses.
A broadcasting for abroad.
Have you read magazines for old persons?
77. 学生のための教科書 VS 学生向けの教科書
Contrast Note: The first sentences implies that the textbook is specifically designed just for students. It could have been an 大人のための教科書, or even a 先生のための教科書, but it isn't. On the other hand, the latter says that it is a textbook "intended for students", but it doesn't necessarily restrict who can use it.
50. ～目 has three usages. It is seen in the pattern ”Counter phrase + 目” to create ordinal expressions (#th). You also see it after the 連用形 of verbs to show the point or place of partition in something. The last usage is just as important. In its third usage it is after either after the stem of adjectives or the 連用形 of verbs to show tendency/disposition/degree. Of course, given that there are two usages when after the 連用形 of verbs, you will have to consider the meaning of the verbs themselves to differentiate the usages.
I've completely read through my 15th book of the year.
There is a line with no gaps at all.
For seams to split.
(Her) sleeves were quite lengthy.
From 不死 by 川端康成.
The young woman's answer was vague, but she left to the platform and had already shown her backside doing so without ever having her strongly powdered face blush.
From 山の音 by 川端康成.
Exception Note: 濃い + 目 should result in 濃目, but this is very rare. Instead, 濃い目 is used.
51. ～もの, either 物 for things or 者 for people, attaches to the stem of nouns to show things or people "to...".
Could you please not give food to the animals?
I want something to drink.
To have travel sickness.
This book is good reading.
There is not a living thing.
She is a really hard worker.
He is completely lazy.
To not have something worth listening to.
52. ～屋 may be added to a type of trade to show a kind of shop. In the same vein, it may also be the end of an alias. As an extension of showing one's trade, it can pinpoint people with certain dispositions like being sarcastic, shy, or what not. In this last case, it is often with the auxiliary ～がる.
|電気屋||Electric store||恥ずかしがり屋||Shy person|
|皮肉屋||Sarcastic person||鈴の屋||Suzunoya (alias)|
53. ～や is a suffix that attaches to nouns of person to show intimacy.
The little boy possessed an angelic expression.