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第293課: More Endings I: ~果てる ~付ける・く, ~立てる・つ, ~尽くす,& ~こなす


果てる means "to come to an end" and is intransitive. Due to its meaning, it may also be a euphemism for "to die". When attached to the 連用形 of a verb, it shows that something has been done completely or up to a given limit. It is often used in a negative fashion. 

1. せいも尽きてる。
    To use up all of one's energy.

2. その宮殿(きゅうでん)()れ果てている。
    The palace is falling into ruin. 

3. 処置しょちに困り果てる。
    To be completely perplexed in measures (being taken). 

4. 変わり果てた姿(すがた)だな。
    It's truly a completely different appearance...

5. 忙しくて(つか)れ果ててしまいました。
    I was so busy that I ended up exhausting myself.

6a. 自害じがいして果てる。
6b. {自害・自殺}する。(More Natural)
      To commit suicide.

Similar Ending Note: ~果せる・遂せる・おおせる is similar to ~果てる in spelling, but it actually means "to successfully do". Its usage is rather limited and most commonly seen in literature with verbs such as 死ぬ, 盗む, 生きる, 逃げる, 隠す, etc. As you can see, the connotations are usually quite negative.

7. ネズミのように逃げ遂せる(の)か。
    Are you going to successfully run away like a rat?


~付ける derives from its usages as an independent verb on the lines of "attaching".  It either shows something out of habit like いつも...する and しなれる or something very firmly or aggressively. The intransitive form is ~付く. 

8. 真っ先に駆けつけよ! 
    Run straight forth!

9. 怒鳴りつけるのは失礼じゃん。
    Isn't shouting at someone rude?

10. 彼女の言葉は頭に焼きつけられた。 
      Her words were burned into my mind. 

11. 記憶に焼きついた。
      It’s branded into my memory. 

12. 彼はふと押し付けた。
      He suddenly pushed it on me.

13. この靴を履きつけている。
      I'm always wearing these shoes.

14. 銀行は貸し金を貸し付けまくりました。
      The banks overly lent out loans in a fury.


 ()くす either means "to administer" or "to work with all one's might". An important set phrase is 筆舌(ひつぜつ)()くしがたい" meaning "indescribable". ~尽くす builds upon the latter usage to mean "to do...exhaustively". ~尽くす follows the 連用形. 

15. お医者さんは避難民(ひなんみん)のために尽くしています。
      The doctor is administering to the refugees.

16. 彼女は(まわ)りを走り尽くし続けた。
      She continued to exhaustively run through the neighborhood.

17. 最善さいぜんを尽くす。
      To do one's best.

18a. 洪水こうずい町全体まちぜんたいをなめくした。? 
18b. 洪水は町全体をおそった。〇
        The flood wiped the entire town away. 
        Literally: The flood licked (away) the town completely.

Sentence Note: There is one problem with 18a. なめ尽くす is used with (ほのお)火事(かじ). For example, 山火事はふもとの町をなめ尽くした = The mountain fire licked away the town at the foot of the mountain. 

全て VS 全部 VS 全体 VS 全員 VS 総員 VS 皆

    Since the last sentence used 全体, this is a perfect time to contrast these six very similar words. 

 全て All (of something); everything 
 全部 All as in altogether
 全体 The entirety of something
 全員 All members; everyone
 総員 Same as 全員 but more technical
 皆 Everyone; everything

The differences are minor, but they can make a difference. 全部 suggests that there are individual parts. 全体 refers to all of a perimeter. 


立てる and 立つ are the transitive and intransitive verb pairs for to stand. ~立てる shows that one does an action energetically. ~立 shows that an emotion of some sort rises. 

19. 僕の心が{浮き立った・ときめいた}。
      My heart was enlivened.

20. 声援せいえんに勇み立つ。
     To be encouraged by support. 

21. 責め立てても無理だよ。
      It's useless even if you reproach him. 

22. ほのおが燃え立つ。
       For flames to blaze. 

23. 記者を質問で攻め立てた。
      I bombarded the reporter with questions. 


こなす may be used to mean "to sell out", "to handle easily", "to break to pieces/digest", or "to use learned skill at will", and ~こなす means "to do...completely/well".

24. 馬を乗りこなす。
      To ride a horse well.

25. 彼女は舞踏会に着こなした。
      She was dressed stylishly at the ball.

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