This is about the auxiliaries ～られる and ～れる. They not only make the potential, but they also make the passive voice.
漢字 to learn this week:鯨、般、基、鎖、繋、汁、渋、滞、巻、境、驚、泥、突、孤、忍
～られる and ～れる attach to the 未然形 and may be used for the following things. ～られる is used with 一段 verbs and 来る and ～れる is used with 五段 verbs and する.
|The passive voice||The passive voice.|
|Indirect passive events of negativity||Indirect passive events of negativity|
|Shows spontaneous action||Shows spontaneous action|
|Semi-formal politeness||Semi-formal politeness|
|Paired with the causative form|
1). For 来る, use ～られる with its こ-未然形.
2). For する, you use ～れる with its さ-未然形. The passive may also be せられる, the せ-未然形 with ～られる. Some verbs like 課す (to tax; levy) are used with the old form せられる.
3). The voiced forms of する, ずる and じる, utilize ～られる with their ぜ・じ-未然形 and じ-未然形 respectively. For example, 感じられる・感ぜられる.
|五段||To take||取る → 取られる||一段||To eat||食べる → 食べられる|
|一段||To see||見る → 見られる||五段||To swim||泳ぐ → 泳がれる|
|カ変||To come||来る → 来られる||五段||To buy||買う → 買われる|
|サ変||To do||する → される||一段||To change||変わる → 変われる|
|五段||To carry||運ぶ → 運ばれる||一段||To slip off||脱げる → 脱げられる|
|五段||To steal||盗む → 盗まれる||五段||To indulge||貪る → 貪れる|
|五段||To fasten||繋ぐ → 繋がれる||五段||To wait||待つ → 待たれる|
Caution Note: 五段 verbs ending in る―remember that all verbs in this category etymologically just end in -u―appear to end in ～られる. However, as their 未然形 is ら-, this is not the case.
The passive voice in English is made with forms of "to be" or "have". In Japanese it's made with ～られる or ～れる. In Japanese there are direct and indirect passive expressions. We'll start with the first.
First, consider the following.
The dog ate the whale.
The dog was eaten by the whale.
Although odd, the sentences show the differences well. In a passive sentence there is an action receiver and an action performer. The action received is always there: it's the passive verb. What may or may not be there is the receiver and or the performer. The performer is marked by に--"by". The subject is the action receiver. In the past tense the subject is the "doer". The (direct) passive voice has the whale be the "doer" and the dog the one being eaten.
Lastly, によって shows what an action was done under. It's especially used for showing when something is created, discovered, or named by someone. If there is a direct object in the sentence, you will see を too.
The ant was eaten by my brother.
The necklace was stolen by a thief.
This book was read by me.
The ball was passed and she received it.
The kid was scratched, and he cried.
Even his parents have turned their backs on him.
Because of this, the development is being hurried.
I got cheated by my girlfriend.
To have one's figure seen by others.
The two were left all alone.
Living in America is being in a blessed environment.
Floods of emotions were condensed in a single phrase.
This tower was built two hundred years ago.
The left behind lonely student got lost.
I got my wallet pocket picked by a pickpocket.
I got scolded by my boss.
It is a cursed island.
Japanese cars are exported throughout the world.
That plan is something that was thought up of by those people.
This novel called "Kasha" was written by Miyabe.
The work was done by Mr. Kato.
That island was named by Columbus.
That gift was presented by him.
She is loved by everybody.
(It's) because I got stuck in traffic!
This song was sung in English.
I was asked the way.
It will be changed little by little.
His name will never be forgotten.
In the past Japanese homes were made with wood.
The broadband router was installed.
The vault was secured with a key.
It is said that he built the castle from gold.
I was halted when I was walking through the town.
He is crying because he was scolded by his teacher.
I was praised by my teacher.
What fines are included?
Don't be discouraged even if you're bombarded by slurs!
Even now this custom is still carried out.
What is this used for?
To leave the dog on the chain. (Not as in to leave there indefinitely)
The G8 Summit in Toyako (Hokkaido) started out with protests.
His theory is based on haphazard inquiry.
To grin from/due to a smily face.
To be engaged by a daimyo.
She's certainly a woman deeply loved by men, isn't she?
WARNING Note: 焦がれる (To yearn for) is not in the passive form. Its passive would be 焦がれられる. The verb 焦がれる can also be used as a supplementary verb in expressions such as 思い焦がれる (to pine for) and 恋（い）焦がれる (to be deeply in love with). So, be careful with these phrases as well.
とされる shows that an idea is held by people in general. As we have not learned about the passive form, and because this is also a derivative of the "とする" pattern we learned above, you are not responsible for remembering "される" at this point. Nevertheless, below is an example.
It is believed that success is generally difficult.
Word Note: There are some words that are not verbal expressions but are passive in nature. One such phrase is と思しい, which is equivalent to と思われる.
In indirect passive the person or thing that is committing the action that is a bother to the speaker is marked by に. The overall pattern is "XはYにobjectを...～られる・れる". This is how intransitive verbs are used with the passive voice in Japanese.
It seems that guy came to my house again. (You don't like it)
Literally: I was died on by my parents.
My parents died on me.
My little brother got his foot stepped on by some middle aged woman on the subway.
I was rained on and became soaking wet.
My younger sister graduated before me (and I was really embarrassed).
I (had/got) my hand bitten by a dog.
Grammar Note: The copula is not used with the passive voice.
Speech Style/Contraction Note: ～られる is often contracted to ～れる in slang.
～られる and ～れる may show spontaneous action or situation. A spontaneous action or situation is one that occurs without the intention of the subject which is often one’s self.
The sign of the people (there) was felt.
The course of going was considered.
I found myself surprised by the sound of the waves.
I found myself remembering about the old days all of a sudden.
They say that the criminal was concealed in a hiding place full of mystery.
In Lesson 50 we learned that the endings ～られる and ～れる may show potential. So, the potential and passive verbs go hand in hand. The difference lies in context and particle usage. Even earlier forms of these two auxiliaries had the same functions. One thing that should be noted, however, is that the use of ～られる and ～れる for the potential has rapidly fallen in recent times. However, it is still seen in many set phrases and old-fashioned speech.
The Ooi River that one just can't cross
Can you leave and forsake it?
The oni is scared and can't move.
1. Another interesting aspect is its use in dialects. For instance, in 北九州 and the surrounding areas, the potential is made by adding ～きる to the 連用形. This potential pattern has the meaning of "having the ability to swim". However, ～られる・れる are used for the potential when "one has the ability to swim out of will". So, if you were to say 泳がれない, you're not saying that you can't literally swim, but in those circumstances you can't get yourself to.
2. In some dialects such as 広島弁, corruptions such as 行けれる can be found. One can assume the motivation for this is to distinguish it from the passive. This also resembles the slang phenomenon by a minority of speakers to take ～られる and attach it to the 連用形 of the 短縮形 (shortened form) of the potential. Ex. 出す → 出せられる. This, though, like 行けれる are deemed to be errors by most Japanese speakers.
When it is inappropriate to use 丁寧語 because who you are speaking to is not such a superior person that it would give reason to use 敬語 (extremely polite speech), ～られる and ～れる may be used.
Have you already read the book?
Where again did you learn Japanese?
1. What are the three usages of the 受身形?
2. What are the three possible words for "by" and how they each used?
3. Create 3 sentences using the first usage of the 受身形.
4. Create a sentence using spontaneous action.
5. Create a sentence using -られる or -れる as a polite ending.
6. Relate the usages of the 受身形.
7. Explain how to express spontaneous action.
8. Explain the connection of the passive voice and the potential form.