Adverbs (副詞) modify verbs or adjectives, and although adverbs may show up in various places in a sentence, they are typically used at the beginning of a sentence. This isn't a rule, and you still see adverbs just about anywhere. It is simply a trend that you will become familiarized with. Adverbs come from various sources. So, not every kind of adverb will be discussed in this lesson, and we will continue learning more about adverbs in consecutive lessons.
The first thing you need to know about 副詞 is that there are also four main kinds from a grammatical standpoint. Although you're not responsible for knowing the names provided below, you should know what they refer to.
|状態副詞||Used with verbs to show condition.||まだ = Still|
|程度副詞||Used with adjectives to show degree.||もっと = More|
| ｛叙述・陳述・呼応｝副詞 ||Are used with the predicate in a specific conjugation.||決して（～ない） = Never|
|指示副詞||Those that describe how something is (done).||こう (like this); そう (like that)|
状態 means "condition" and 程度 means "degree". The overwhelming majority of adverbs will qualify something in these manners. The words 叙述, 陳述, and 呼応 are not quite the exact same thing. However, they all refer to adverbs that must take ない.
陳述 stresses that one is declaring forthright the negation is to be so. So, it's a perfect word for something like 決して. 叙述 is descriptive. So, it makes sense to call something like 全然 one because it means "not at all". 呼応 means "agreement" in the sense of grammar. So, it is the blanket term of the three and accounts for any adverb that must take ない.
Most adverbs come from nouns. This sometimes makes it hard to tell when an adverb phrase is actually being used as a noun or not, which can cause some particle problems. However, we'll learn more about how to discern between the two parts of speech when a word can be either or. You've actually already gotten used to such words. Temporal words and counters are great examples of things that can be nouns or adverbs.
Only a handful of adverbs are true adverbs--もう (already). A "true adverb" can never be used as nouns, and not surprisingly, they don't appear to come from nouns at all.
Below are some of the most common adverbs in Japanese. Before we get to example sentences, we'll need to take into account the notes that follow the chart.
|At that time||その時||A little||少し、ちょっと||Sometimes||時々|
|Immediately||すぐに||Fairly; quite||かなり||Almost|| ほとんど|
|Again|| また||Completely|| まったく||Suddenly||とつぜん|
1.The general reading for 今日 is きょう. こんにち is formal and usually expected if used in formal writing. In general speech, it is usually limited to こんにちは. こんじつ is a rather outdated reading that you should not expect to see.
2. 本日 is read as ほんじつ, not ほんにち. It is very formal and usually treated as a 書き言葉.
3. 明日 is formally read as みょうにち. あす is slightly more formal than あした, but both are common readings in the spoken language.
4. 昨日 is formally read as さくじつ. However, this is usually restricted to very honorific speech or writing. Its normal reading is きのう.
She still doesn't know how to tell time.
Today is particularly cold.
Two ambulances came.
Winter has finally ended.
Pharmaceuticals are currently fairly cheap.
It's a little warm compared to yesterday, isn't it?
Vocab Note: あたたかい is written as 温かい in reference to heat of touch or emotion and 暖かい as in reference to climate, body temperature, and even color. あたたかい may also be あたたかな or even あったか｛い・な｝ in casual speech. Remember that な is used before nouns. As for "hot", 熱い refers to things being hot and 暑い refers to the weather being hot.
Is there a lot?/Do you have a lot?
Grammar Note: たくさん may either be used as a noun or an adverb. Never say たくさんな when using this as a noun quantifier. However, this is used in sentences like the following.
もう VS もっと
Both have meanings of "more". The first, though, can be used in the sense of "once more/further" and the second is "more" as in the degree of something. Aside from that, もう also means "already" and "shortly".
8a. もう一回 〇
8b. もっと一回 X
I need more time.
I already ate the sushi.
More money is necessary.
I've already switched to a class above (the previous one).
Just keep on a little bit more.
It has already ended.
Some て phrases are adverbial. These phrases have no "conjunctive" role as the literal grammatical function of て has been lost in them. It is best to treat them as separate words in your vocabulary. See ～て II for a more detailed grammatical description on this phenomenon.
It will take 10 minutes by foot.
That's a new story to me/That's first in my ears.