There is a lot to know about the particle と. However, this lesson will only focus on the case particle と. If you don't quite remember what a case particle is, don't worry. These particles simply show basic grammatical relationships in a sentence.
と's basic meaning is "and" when placed in between nominal phrases. If you want to use something else, it has to become a noun first. と can't be used at the beginning of a sentence. In that case, you should use something like そして. When listing more than two things, consecutive と may be omitted, and this is usually the most natural thing to do. と is typically not used after the last item, but it can be in older language.
Grammar Note: Again, this meaning is for when と is between two or more nouns! 1a is wrong because this rule is violated in a more complicated way. In English "I am Japanese and a doctor" is technically short for "I am Japanese and I am a doctor". Here it is clear that you are actually connecting two predicate phrases, not two simple noun phrases. If you wanted to say that "X and Y are doctors", you would use と.
1a. 私は日本人と医者です X
1b. 私は日本人で医者です。 〇
I am Japanese and a doctor.
2a. すばしっこいと茶色の狐はのろまな犬を飛び越える。 X
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
Example Note: 2b is grammatically correct, but because it is a translation of a sentence in English that has each letter of the alphabet in it, the Japanese used for it would not necessarily be said. For instance, the word のろま is not really used, and the subject phrase is rather lengthy. This is the case in English as well, but in Japanese, a lengthy,or in other words, an unnecessarily lengthy subject may sound unnatural.
There are apples and grapes on the table.
This and that are the same.
Please come with your notes, textbook, and dictionary.
I have a dog and a cat; there is a dog and a cat.
I have a dog and a cat.
There are Americans, English, and Canadians in (my) Japanese class.
Morning and night are a little cold.
Practice (1): Translate the following.
1. There is a dog and cat at home.
2. Cows and rabbits
3. You and I.
4. I bought games and CDs.
5. I broke a door and chair.
Particle Note: This pattern used to be XとY（と） for "X and Y". If you ever see something like XとYとが, you're not seeing a typo. This is not ancient, but it is not frequently used.
と may show the partner in which a person of interest is doing an action with. Both the "and" and "with" definitions can be in the same sentence as they're not the same and have different requirements. The word after と when it means "with" is not part of the same phrase as と.
I'm going to the park with my father and mother.
I went out on a walk with my dog.
Nuance Note: Both 11a and 11b are grammatical, but 11a sounds as if you are elevating the dog to the same level of importance as you, and you are showing want to walk with the dog whereas 11b means that you are simply taking the dog out for its walk.
と一緒に and と共に both may mean "together" or "jointly". と一緒に is only used with two compatible nouns that are same in status and kind. You can't use it in "I talked together with my teacher". ご一緒する is honorific but means "to go with". とともに is more formal and shows that things/people are doing something or in the same state together.12. 彼女と彼は結婚する。 (Don't need 一緒に)
12. 宏と花子は同時に結婚する。 (Simultaneously as 同時に makes more sense)
Hiroshi and Hanako will marry together.
They fought the enemy together.
They fought mutually with the enemy.
I rise with the sun.
The couple are both fine.
It is not strange to share sadness with someone.
I am going together (with you).
Those two are always together.
I talked with my father on the telephone.
I did homework together with my boyfriend.
Birds of a feather flock together.
Won't you come with me?
He fought against his fears, and he finally won.
I sometimes argue with her.
I collided with a car.
To play with a child.
I had dinner with him.
To meet with a friend.
Grammar Note: と会う shows that both sides move (to see one another) while に会う shows that only one party moves, thus leading to meeting the person. Due to this discrepancy, for "to happen to meet someone/encounter someone", you can see X｛と・に｝ばったり（と）[会う・出会う].
Practice (2): Translate the following. You may use a dictionary.
1. I ate with my mom.
2. I swam with frogs.
3. The birds and bugs sang.
4. I went to the theater with my little brother and little sister.
5. She danced with her husband.
と may mark a subject being compared. As for 似る, ～に似る and ～と似る are possible but slightly different. と in this case marks one side of a mutual relation(ship) whereas に only shows the standard of comparison. They both, though, make the second person the basis of comparison when the pattern is XはY｛に・と｝似ている. Consider the following.
31c. その子はお父さんに似ている。 〇
31d. その父は息子と似ている。 X
31e. その父は息子に似ている。 X
The last is wrong because the son isn't the source of the father's traits. With と you don't have this problem. It just states that someone resembles the other, and the statement then could go either way.
The case is different from before.
To compare with X.
That is the same idea as his.
The difference between humans and animals.
Particle Note: The second instance of と here is not optional. The different と are different. The first is "and" and the second is "with" used here to show comparison, or in this case the opposite of comparison.
The Spanish and Japanese don't resemble/match each other anymore.
Particle Note: We've seen XはYと似ている and but XはYに似ている, but XとYは似ている exists too. If the referents weren't mentioned, then you'd need something like お互いに for "each other", but you don't use the word every time you use 似ている.
Practice (3): Translate the following. You may use a dictionary.
1. Did you compare it with the translation?
2. What is the difference between McDonald's and Burger King?
3. He resembles his father.
4. My house resembles his house.
Content of a Result
と and に are sometimes similar, but there is always a difference. と may show the result of something. It's used with verbs like 決める (to decide) and なる (to become). As for なる, になる and となる are possible. However, になる shows an end point of some change. Therefore, there is a duration to it. As for となる, it shows the content/substance of a result.
So, と shows a discrete change. This means that it shows the result of something not from a continuous process. と often sounds more stiff and formal. Another verb where there is this contrast is 改める (to reform; revise). This means that there are some phrases where と doesn't make a lot of sense.
Field day has come at last.
It's been decided that the final test will be in 2 weeks.
It became a drizzle.
To become better.
The sleet turned to snow.
漢字 Note: みぞれ is rarely written in 漢字 as 霙.
Practice (4): Translate the following.
1. He became a teacher.
2. I became a teacher.
3. She became sick.
4. To get well.
Practice (5): Translate the following.
There are certainly alternative ways to translate. If you believe that your translation is also correct, you should have it checked.
5. Setting the price at 2,000 yen is bad.
1. I won't meet with the teacher.
2. Yesterday, I didn't meet the teacher in the park.
3. I named him Satoshi.