There are major differences between てある and ている. In Japanese a supplementary verb is a verb that loses some of its literal meaning(s) to serve some grammatical purpose. This is how both are used here.
漢字 to learn this week: 伝、計、割、集、窓、開、倒、飯、洗、机、荷、物、乱、雑、積
-てある shows a current state caused from an action done by someone. The state results from a purposeful action done by someone, not something. It's used with transitive verbs but not with を, at least in this usage. The object is the subject of manipulation, and the doer is implied.
花が生けてある means that "the flowers have been arranged (by someone)" and the flowers are still arranged as such. 生ける is a transitive.
The following gives a static nuance. It shows that arrangements have already been done. So, the action done by "someone" is "to inform". The resultant state is "being informed".
To have informed her beforehand.
Similarly, にしてある has it that something is deemed so but really isn't. にする means "to make as..". For example, ばかにする means "to make an idiot of". Similarly, "Verb + ことにする" means "to decide that". Together, you can make sentences like the one below.
I decided to (make myself out to) be well (even though I'm really not).
Let's put some context to this statement. Your friend is in a stressful situation at home. In order to not worry herself, she has decided to be spirited despite that she really isn't.
I have set the clock five minutes forward.
State: The state is that the clock has been set five minutes forward.
The glass has been broken (because of the actions of someone and still is broken).
State: The glass is still broken due to the fact that someone broke it in the first place.
The questionnaires have been gathered.
State: The questionnaires are now gathered due to the actions of a person or people.
The window is open (by someone).
State: The window has been left open by someone.
The heater was turned on (by someone) and has been kept that way.
State: The heater has been turned on by someone.
The tree has been toppled down (by someone).
State: A person knocked the tree down and the tree is still on the ground.
His temperature was checked (by someone).
State: The person's temperature has been checked.
Dinner has been made.
State: The state is that the dinner is made.
The shirt has been washed.
State: The shirt is washed.
I've already bought the present for his birthday.
Note: -てある can show a resultant state of what someone has done for a given purpose.
The book was placed on the desk (by someone).
The luggage was piled up in a clutter (by someone).
Grammar/Particle Note: When を is used with -てある, it shows a possessive resultative situation. In such cases, が may still be used. This is often missed by students, and you should understand that there is a restriction in using を…てある. Consider the following.
Mr. Chen has drunk (his) medicine.
On the other hand, though, when the subject is already marked by が, を marks the object. Also, ～てある with a subject can even be seen after intransitive verbs. In the above sentences of the previous usage, no action doer could be stated. This is the big contrast.
I've slept a lot.
Austin has parked the car outside.
Practice (1): Translate the following.
Grammar Note: -てある has other conjugations. 貼ってあった = "it had been posted".
Other Supplementary Usages of ある
1. In である, a more ceremonious copula or in "連用形＋はない" with adjectives.
Alligators are cold-blooded animals.
Man is the reed of thinking.
2. つつある → See Lesson 109.
ている shows continuation, habit, progress, and a state of being. It really depends on the verb for correct interpretation. When used with 着る (to wear), it shows a state of being dressed. Ongoing action is typically expressed with verbs of process--食べる、飲む、走る.
For verbs of motion like 行く and 帰る, it shows state of having done that movement. Interpret it as a completed action and the result being the state in effect.
The negative is ～ていない, but ～ず（に）いる and ～ないでいる mean "without...-ing". The first is used in more formal, poetic-like speech. ～ている is often contracted to ～てる. It may also be ～とる and ～ちょる in other regions of Japan.
To have a red face.
I am a teacher.
She has long hair.
I live in a place near Tokyo Station.
He had been the chairman.
Nuance Note: 会長 is a chairman of an organization; 議長 is a chairman of an assembly.
You look like your mother.
The bridge is made of stone.
His necktie is tangled.
Taro is eating breakfast.
Were you listening to what I was saying just now?
This desk is broken.
Sugar has already been put in.
The moderate weather is continuing today, isn't it?
The lodge faces the mountain.
He continued to flop along the street.
Note: 続ける can attach to the 連用形 of another verb to mean “to continue to…”.
The textbook is suitable for beginners.
My dad doesn't know what I am studying.
Is the bath hot yet?
The clock is five minutes fast.
I own a vehicle.
Geniuses are always diving into studies.
I gathered the apples that were on the tree.
The town lies in the valley.
I don't remember.
The mountain towers above (everything).
I am studying law at Meiji University.
The road is crowded.
Note: When 込んでいる is an attribute, it's often just 込んだ. Also, you wouldn't use 込む to describe Tokyo or Japan. You could say 東京はどこへ行っても込んでいる, which means "Tokyo is crowded wherever you go".
He acted without (even) listening.
Do you have any vacant rooms this evening?
Does the price include fully comprehensive insurance?
It's an overwhelming situation concerning the numbers.
He's passing an electric current.
Word Note: 動く is "to move "as in about, not "to move to a different house". That is 引っ越す.
Phrase Note: The above phrase is only used when telling for how long something has existed.
Practice (2): Translate the following.
1. I'm in a hurry.
2. It had been raining.
3. The lights are on.
4. She isn't singing.
5. I went without eating.
知らない VS 知っていない
It would be a fallacy to say that the latter does not exist. However, it is true that the standard, basic negative form of to know is 知らない. This is no doubt exceptional. The differences can actually be summed up for the most part relatively well without much issue.
知っていない especially appears whenever the affirmative and negative of 知っている are being used for contrast. This goes for several conjugations. Although we have discussed the particle, when used with the conjunctive ば, in order to get the meaning "if you don't know", you must use 知っていなければ, which is how you would conjugate 知っていない＋ば. 知らなければ, 知らない＋ば, would result in the reading "if you don't realize", a property of を知る.
Again, although not yet covered, 知っていない is also possible when the negative is being used not for an actual negation but in an affirmative conjecture, which we've seen already before with things like じゃないか, 遊びに行かない?, etc. Here it is just added with something we have covered, which are modals of conjecture. See Lesson 80.
Essentially, 知らない denotes attention to a static condition of not knowing whereas 知っていない denotes attention to the completeness of knowing in the negative sense. 知っていない is inconstant and denotes an objective view from the outside in regards to a lack of knowledge, which is exactly why students are rightfully told they are wrong when they try to apply it as meaning "I don't know". 知らない involves denoting a lack of knowledge from the inward perspective of the thing at hand.
Despite that there are instances where 知っていない can be seen, in actual spoken Japanese, it's usage is almost completely avoided. The single instance mentioned here where it is in fact imperative is still used, but many speakers are more likely to simply avoid having to use it as there are plenty of other synonymous phrases out there like 理解できない and 腑に落ちていない that could be used instead altogether. Derivatives are by far the most common examples of it, which is the most important to keep in mind if you feel like using it.
Even if you do or do not know
Whether you know or not
Intended: If you don't know Japanese, you can't answer this question.
Intended: In order to pass this exam, you must know Japanese well.
One other note is that in order for the degree of completeness to work with 知っていない, it should have a premise. Otherwise, it is probably a misspeak or due to dialectical forces because all of this information is specific to Standard Japanese, and there are indeed dialects where the same thing etymologically is acceptable.
"What did Tanaka know about this? "No, he still didn't know anything"
Note: This section is heavily based off of the great research done by the Japanese linguist 久野すすむ. You can read his full explanation of this in Japanese in his work 新日本文法研究.
States & Appearances 状態・様子
卵が割れている。 卵が割れた。 卵が割ってある。
The egg is broken. The egg broke. The egg has been broken (and still is).
To have a slim figure. A slim figure
He's fat. He got fat.
Bulging finger A swollen face
A pocket with a hole There's a hole in my pocket.
A distorted viewpoint Your viewpoint is distorted.
腐った橋 腐っている橋 橋が腐っている
A rotten bridge A rotting/rotten bridge The bridge is rotting/rotten
The door got dented. The door is dented.
Frozen river The river is frozen/freezing.
Dry sand The sand is dry/drying.
Cracked wall There are cracks in the wall/the wall is cracking.
A twisted narrow path The narrow path is twisted.
A chipped tea cup The tea cup is chipped.
1. -た is often preferred over -ている when used as an attribute.
2. Context determines whether -ている is the 進行形 (progressive) or the 完了形 (perfective).
1. Bread has been bought.
2. A restaurant reservation has been made.
3. The lights have been turned on.
4. The book has been placed on the desk.
5. It has been made.
5. 食べないで行った; 食べないでいた; 食べずに行った; 食べずにいた。
Note: The answers for #5 are not all synonymous because of the vague nature of the original English sentence.