There are two classes that differ only in conjugation: 形容詞 and 形容動詞. We will only cover the first class in this lesson. For 形容動詞, see Lesson 11.
|形容詞||れんようけい I||れんようけい II|
|Tense||Plain|| Polite Speech||More Polite|
|Delicious||おいしい|| Early|| 早い||Wide|| 広い||Difficult||難しい|
|Happy|| うれしい|| Sad|| 悲しい|| Close||近い||Far||遠い|
Spelling Note: あつい in respect to weather is written as 暑い and as 熱い for "hot" in general.
He isn't nice.
It's a great movie.
Professor Yamada is strict.
I was not busy.
That building is tall.
That TV is expensive.
Word Note: 高い may mean "tall" and "expensive". "Tall" as in a person = 背が高い。背 means "back/height".
よい → いい
いい means "good/fine", but when you conjugate it, you have to use the older form よい. よい itself is more formal, but in different forms, it's just normal. Do not run with this to mean adjectives ending in the sounds いい conjugate this way. This is ONLY in reference to いい・よい the word whether it is by itself or in some compound.
That's not good.
Today's weather is good, isn't it?
The weather is good today, isn't it?
Practice (1): Translate the following.
1. The sea is blue. 2. The sea is wide. 3. This is old.
4. Annoying children. 5. It isn't wide. 6. The car is small.
7. The room is bright. 8. Winter is cold.
Adjectives in Slang
いい can also become ええ in slang. In fact, ai, oi, and ii at the end of adjectives contract to ē in slang. "Ye" and "we" aren't possible in Standard Japanese, so in this case y and w are dropped. Although it is rather unorthodox to be learning of this at the beginning, the reality is that these forms are used excessively in the pop culture medias that you are surely exposed to. Don't be confused when you see these forms. You should understand that using them in a non-casual setting is rude to say the least. So, use with caution.
|強い (strong)||つよい → つえー||怖い (scary)||こわい → こえー|
|新しい (new)||あたらしい → あたらしぇー||赤い (red)||あかい → あけー|
Other Attributive Forms
Certain 形容詞 have another common additional attributive form that is not conjugatable. Remember that attribute phrases go before a noun to modify its qualities. That is what an attribute is. There is no chart for conjugations for these alternate forms because there are none. That is what is meant by not being conjugatable.
Adjectives with alternative forms that can conjugate do not count. For these three, the special commonality is that the alternative forms below are limited. As far as nuance is concerned, with them being special, they are minutely different from the 'normal' forms. These forms tend to be more subjective in nature.
A small sea
It's a funny story, isn't it?
A big light
Though this is almost always a mistake made by Japanese learners, there are rare instances when an adjectival phrase ends up having の attached to it to regain its use as an attribute phrase. A major example of this is 仲良し. You can actually see 仲良しな and 仲良しの, but both ways are still grammatically weird.
15. 一番仲良しの友人 (Not spoken language)
1. How do you conjugate いい?
2. What is the difference between the しゅうしけい and the れんたいけい?
3. What is the difference between 熱い and 暑い?
4. Conjugate 小さい into the plain past and polite negative past forms.
5. Conjugate 楽しい into the plain past and polite negative past forms.
Just the Root: It's not to say that the root of an adjective is not used alone. In fact, in an interjectory sense, this is done all the time. The root can also be used in compound words.
Ah, it's hot (outside).
17. 古い ＋ 新聞 → 古新聞 (Old newspaper)
18. うれしい + 涙 → うれし涙 (Tears of joy)
が and は are determined by context so a few of these simple sentence translations may be too vague to decide between the two. Use as many 漢字 as you can.
1. 海は青い。 2. 海は広い。 3. これは古い。 4. うるさい子ども（たち）
5. 広く（は）ない。 6. その車は小さい。 7. そのへやは明るい。 8. 冬は寒い。
1. You must use the original form よい and treat it as any other adjective.
2. The しゅうしけいis the form at the end of a sentence. The れんたいけい modifies noun phrases.
3. The first is hot as in things being hot while the second refers to the weather being hot.
4. 小さかった; 小さくなかったです・小さく（は）ありませんでした
5. 楽しかった; 楽しくなかったです・楽しく（は）ありませんでした