第264課: 込む

In this lesson we'll learn all about 込む. It's interesting to know that the character 込 is a Japanese-made 漢字. This verb and how it's used often throws people off, especially when trying to translate stuff. 

込む

込む means "to be crowded" or "to continue in the same state". Of all of the compound verb endings in Japanese, -込む is by far one of the most important. This is because it is used to create hundreds of unique verbs. ~込む has four broad usages.

THE 4 USAGES: 1: Going inside     2: Put inside     3: Keep as is     4: Doing enough 

 (1) To plunge 飛び込む とびこむ (2) To corner into 追い込む おいこむ
 (3) To mope 塞ぎ込む ふさぎこむ (4) To drill (teaching) 教え込む おしえこむ
 (4) To boil well 煮込む にこむ (3) To age 老け込む ふけこむ
 (2) To cram 詰め込む つめこむ (1) To invade 攻め込む せめこむ
 (1) To run in yelling 怒鳴り込む どなりこむ (2) To entice 誘い込む さそいこむ
 (1) To march in 繰り込む くりこむ (1) To roll in 転がり込む ころがりこむ
 (3) To sit down 座り込む すわりこむ (2) To count on 見込む みこむ

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Examples 

1. がけから海に飛び込むのは危ない。
    Plunging into the sea from a cliff is dangerous. 

2. てき窮地きゅうちに追い込むのは重要な戦略せんりゃくです。
    Cornering the enemy is an important war strategy. 

3. 冷たい空気が流れ込んでいます。
    Cold air is flowing in. 

4. 我々の大学が徹底的(てっていてき)に全教科課程を学生の頭に教え込むためには、そういった教授を雇用する必要があります。
It is necessary that our university employ professors that exhaustively drill the curriculum into the minds of their students. 

Ending Note: More compound verbs are based off of the solely transitive form ~こめる.

5. 部屋に閉じ込められた。
    I was locked in a room. 

6. 策動さくどうふうじ込める。(Rare)
    To contain a scheme. 


込・籠める

1. To load bullets.

8. 実弾を込める。
    To hold live fire.

2. To pour emotion into. This is where を込めて mostly applies.

9. 彼は満身の力を込めて大石を投げた。
    He threw a great stone with all his strength.

10. 心をこめて持て成す。
     To make welcome with (all) one's heart.

3. To include another item. Using 含める is more common. 

11. 消費税を込めた料金
      Fee with sales tax included. 

4. As an intransitive verb, it means "enshroud (clouds, mist, etc.)". 

12a. 霧が町に込めた。(Old-fashioned)
12b. 霧が町に立ち込めた。(Natural)
       Mist enshrouded the village.


~込める

     ~込める may mean to "put into" or "to do away with". Examples include the following.

 To imprison 閉じ込める 
 To seal up 塗り込める 
 To argue down 言い込める
 To envelop 立ち込める 
 To confine 封じ込める 
 To shut up 押し込める 

13. 雲の立ち込めた山を見よ。
     Look at the cloud enveloped mountains!

14. 相手を言いこめた。
      I argued down my opponent.  

15. 強盗は人質を物置に押し込めた。
     The burglar pushed the hostages down into a closet.

16. 強盗は人質を物置きに押し込んだ。
     The burglar pushed the hostages into the closet. 

17. 神社には、壁に塗り込められた経文がある。
      There are sutras painted over in walls at shrines.