第88課: Interrogatives III: With Particles

We've seen the basic interrogatives, the many ways to say how, and other phrases involving this thing. Aside from how, though, we have not seen how they used with particles. 

With か & も

When a 疑問詞 is followed by the particles か or も, you get expressions for "some..." and "all..." respectively. The expressions with も have positive and negative definitions. 

  + か + も
 だれ・どなた Someone Either/Everyone/Neither/Nobody
 なに Something Everything/Nothing
 なぜ Somehow X
 どうして X By any means
 いつ Sometime Always
 どこ・どちら Somewhere Everywhere/Nowhere
 どれ Every (one/thing) Anything/none
 どう Somehow or another Much

      か makes the "some". When も follows these words, it gives a meaning of "all". In a negative expression, it does the complete opposite. も is almost always used with the negative, but it is positive in 何もかも and 何もすべて.

Part of Speech Note: These words are either used as nouns or adverbs. Remember that these words are no longer interrogatives.  


Examples 

1. 仕事もかもれて、休暇きゅうかたのしんだ。
    I forgot about work and everything, and I enjoyed a vacation.

Grammar Note: To say "nobody's", use "のXも". も = "nobody's car". "Someone's car" = かのか is an indefinite pronoun. For always, いつもの is right.

2. 彼らのんでいるところはどこも街道筋かいどうすじい。
      Wherever they are living, it is close to the highway.

3. 誰かがおいしいクッキーを全部食べた。
   Somebody ate all of the delicious cookies!

4. いつもえているのですか。
    What are you always thinking about?

5. 彼本当にいつも親切しんせつです。
    He is really always kind.

6. あいつはいつも愚痴ぐちこぼしてる。
    That guy is always complaining.

Meaning Note愚痴す is a set phrase meaning "to complain". Also note that the character 零 is hardly ever used. 

7. 犯人はんにんをどこかでたか。
    Did you see the criminal somewhere?

8. いつか留学りゅうがくする。
    To some day study abroad.

Word Note: The following is wrong日本大学留学する. 留学する is used with に. So,  日本に留学する is correct. 日本大学勉強する is correct, though.

9. 誰もが商才しょうさいみとめている。
    Everyone recognizes his business ability.

10. 私英語講座こうざはどれも文法ぶんぽうあつかった。
      Every one of my English courses dealt with grammar.

11. あなたのコンピューターはどこもくありません。
      There's nothing wrong anywhere with your computer.

12. 食もない。
       I have nothing to eat.

13. 彼女こたえませんでした。
      She answered nothing.

14. アクセルにかおかしいところがあります。
      There's something wrong with the accelerator.

15. 今日の彼はどうかしている。
      He's not himself today.

16. 色々いろいろどうもありがとうございます。
      Thank you very much for everything.

17. 昨日きのうはどうも。
      Thanks for yesterday.

18. 今日は魚がどうもわない。
      The fish won't bite for some reason today.

19. 何かの拍子ひょうしでケイタイを落としたんです。
      By some chance, I dropped my cellphone. 

20. 趣味しゅみはありますか。
      Do you have any hobbies?

21. 彼らはワープロにいつもいている。
      They're always having trouble with their processor.

Phrase Noteく is a set phrase similar to "not know what to do/be at a loss with; to be put out". 

With でも・ても

When an interrogative is followed by でも, it creates an "any" indefinite pronoun. These phrases are only used as adverbs. So, you can't follow them with particles like が.

 なん + でも Anything
 だれ・どなた + でも Anybody/anyone
 いつ + でも Anytime
 どこ・どちら + でも Anywhere
 どれ + でも Anything (out of many)

22. いつでもいい。
      Anytime is OK.

23. このたな商品しょうひんどれでも千円です。
      Whichever item on this shelf is 1,000 yen.

24. どこでも好きなところへ行く。
      I will go anywhere I like.

25. 論評ろんぴょう結果けっかいつでも悪いことだ。
      The effect of criticism is always a bad thing.

26. 彼はなんでも高価こうかものこのむ。
      He likes anything expensive.

Word Note: 好む is similar to "to prefer".


 Interrogative + ~ても

              When a question word is used with ても, it creates a "no matter..." statement.

27. 阿蘇山あそさんいつてもきれいですね。
      Mount Aso is beautiful no matter when you see it, isn't it?

28. 僕はを食べても、太らない。
      No matter what I eat, I don't get fat.

29. どこに行っても僕は君のそばにいるよ。
      No matter where you go, I will be by your side.

30. 誰のかぎがドアを開けても、僕がいるから君はこの部屋に安全あんぜんだよ。
      No matter whose key opens the door, you are safe in this room because I'm here.

31. 何度ても面白いです。
      No matter how many times I see it, it's funny.