第203課: Interjections 

     There are several terms for "interjection". They may be called 感動詞かんどうし, 間投詞かんとうし, or 感嘆詞かんたんし. Interjections may be outbursts of emotion while others are simply greetings (挨拶あいさつ). Some are nasty pejoratives, others simply internet slang. Due to this diversity, we are going to study interjections with the following categories. 

 Emotional Interjections 感動詞
 Interjections of Yelling かけ声の間投詞
 Interjections of Response 応答の間投詞
 Interjections of Appeal 呼びかけの間投詞
 Interjections of Salutation 挨拶の間投詞
 Slang Interjections
 俗語的な間投詞
 Onomatopoeic Interjections
 擬声語的な間投詞

This lesson won't show every interjection nor every variant, but this should hopefully help find about the most important ones. 

Emotional Interjections

 Ah ああ It can be used to show surprise, grief, joy, etc. and also as a light response. In the latter case it's often just あ.
 Oh おう・おお Used when moved (emotionally) by something, sudden remember something, or agree with something. 
 Thank you どうもありがとう・おおきに・サンキュー・三Q 大きに is famous for being from Kansai Dialects. サンキュー comes from English and is used in casual settings. The second spelling is common in internet slang.
 Oh my おや(おや) It shows a little distrust when met with something unexpected.
 My, my おやまあ 
 Huh まったく 
 Goodness やれ(やれ) Used when relieved, tired, dejected, and bewildered. 

Interjections of Yelling

 
 ああ・わあ Ah わあ is often used by females but not limited to them. The adverb わあと also exists.
 よいしょ  Sound of when you are lifting up something heavy.
 えいや  Sound one makes when pulling something with strength. 
 おい Hey! Comes from Satsuguu Dialect for punishing people. 
 おっと Oops Used mainly by middle-aged people and older. 
 乾杯 Cheers 
 きゃー Eek 
 ふん Pssh 
 しまった Dang/damn 
 図星 Bull's-eye 
 畜生 Damn you 
 はくしょん Achoo 
 ファック F*** This is not used like in English frequency-wise, and it's not a given that the speaker knows it is a bad word in English. 
 ヤッホー Yo-ho 
 もう Jeez 
 すごい Awesome 
 やった # did it! 
 
Notes:
 
1. The first shows how っ can make more emphasis, and this can be used for other adjectives. The latter contraction, which can also occur for 形容詞 ending in おい, あい, うい, and いい to えー, which is done in standard speech by men in casual situations. It depends on the region if women get to use this contraction or not. 
Examples
 
やんやの喝采になってしまった。
It ended up becoming a thunderous applause.  
  Notes
 Ah ああ・わあ わあ is not limited to females. It can even be in わあと with verbs dealing with crying and joy.
 Yo-ho よいしょ 
 Ugh えいや 
 There! それ・そら The latter is more so dialectical and depends on the speaker. This pattern can be applied to things like これ as well.
 Shut up
 うるさい・だまれ・だまって There are many other ways to "shut up" that differ in grammar and politeness. 
 Hey! おい・こら 
 Ouch! いたっ・いたい・いてぇ 
 Oops おっと 
 Have it your way! 勝手にしろ 
 Good luck! 頑張って 
 Cheers! 乾杯 
 Eek きゃー 
 ...stinks くさい・くせー 
 S%イ# くそ・ふん 
 Dαムni% しまった 
 Awesome すごい・すげー 
 Stop! ストップ 
 Bull’s-eye 図星 
 Da#% you 畜生 
 Voila 出来上がり 
 Achoo ハクション 
 F*#K ファック 
 Jeez もう 
 Yes; hurray
 やった 
 Yoohoo ヤッホー 
  Notes
 Ah ああ・わあ わあ is not limited to females. It can even be in わあと with verbs dealing with crying and joy.
 Yo-ho よいしょ 
 Ugh えいや 
 There! それ・そら The latter is more so dialectical and depends on the speaker. This pattern can be applied to things like これ as well.
 Shut up
 うるさい・だまれ・だまって There are many other ways to "shut up" that differ in grammar and politeness. 
 Hey! おい・こら 
 Ouch! いたっ・いたい・いてぇ 
 Oops おっと 
 Have it your way! 勝手にしろ 
 Good luck! 頑張って 
 Cheers! 乾杯 
 Eek きゃー 
 ...stinks くさい・くせー 
 S%イ# くそ・ふん 
 Dαムni% しまった 
 Awesome すごい・すげー 
 Stop! ストップ 
 Bull’s-eye 図星 
 Da#% you 畜生 
 Voila 出来上がり 
 Achoo ハクション 
 F*#K ファック 
 Jeez もう 
 Yes; hurray
 やった 
 Yoohoo ヤッホー 

Interjections of Response


   Notes
 Ah ああ・あ 
 Uh; um あの(う) 
 Well じゃあ・さあ・まあ See below
 Um えーと えーと is a very casual spelling. ええと and えっと are regular spellings. 
 No い(い)え・いや・ううん・や(ー)だ やだ is quite casual and is more like "that's bad".
 Yes はい・ええ・うん 
 OK OK・オーケー 
 Eh? え(っ) May show doubt when surprised at something or when you want something to be repeated.
 Oh, yes? へえ Shows surprise at something.
 Sorry ごめんなさい・申しわけありません・すみません See Lesson 26 for more variants. 
 Uh-huh しか 
 Yeah そうですね This is even said when you will then show disagreement. In that case, it would be followed with something like そうかといって.
 Not at all
 とんでもない See below. 
 What? 何 Of course, it has variants like 何だ.
 Indeed なるほど Used in agreement or recognition of what someone said.
 Let me see はて・はてな Used when one is suspecting or thinking about something.
 Not really
 別に Maybe accompanied by the verb that is omitted. 
 No use arguing 問答無用 
 Rodger 了解 
 Wow あら Often used by women. 
 Of course
 もちろん 
 Hey there; I say
 これは(これは) 
 

さあ VS まあ VS じゃあ
 
Though all translated with relatively the same word "well", these three interjections aren't exactly the same, and they're used in different situations for different emotive effects. 
 
さあ can be used to urge or invite someone to do something. It may be use to bolster oneself or even used when one is confused or troubled. It can also be the well in "well, that's done".  
 
まあ is quite different. Women often use it whenever they're shocked, relieved, etc. In general, however, it can be used to suggest that something is not completely all right, but that it will suffice for now. Or, it can be used to pacify someone and tell them to do something for the time being. 
 
 じゃあ ・じゃ・では is like "ok now". It can be used like それでは as "then", which can also be してみるお. It can even be used to switch over to another conversation. 

 
 とんでもない
 
  It can be used to completely reject another's idea, equivalent to めっそうもない.It can also be used like とほうもない, which means "outrageous/absurd". It can be seen as "no kidding!". It's often used in a negative fashion.
 
In polite speech it can be more easily interpreted as "it's nothing". Or, it can be used in the sense of "don't mention it". Of course, a lot of this has to deal with context and tone of voice. For its meaning "unthinkable", it is interchangeable with とんだ・思いのほかの, which are both attributive expressions. 

Interjections of Appeal

 Sh! しーっ
 I'm leaving 行ってきます
 Have a nice day 行ってらっしゃい
 Wait ちょっと
 Please お願いします・どうぞ
 Pretty please かなりしてください
 Hello (on the telephone) もしもし
 Good job あっぱれ・グッジョブ
 Excuse me
 失礼します
 Help 助けて
 I'm home ただいま
 Cheese チーズ・にー

Interjections of Salutation

 So long あばよ
 Welcome home お帰りなさい
 Congratulations おめでとう(ございます)
 Happy birthday (お)誕生日おめでとう(ございます)
 Good morning
 おはようございます
 Good afternoon
 今日は
 Good evening
 今晩は
 Good night
 お休みなさい
 How are you?; farewell  ご機嫌よう
 Farewell さよ(う)なら・さらば
 See you later また明日・あとで
 What's up? どう
 Bye ばい・バイバイ
 Long time no see 久しぶりですね・久々・調子はどう?
 Merry Christmas メリークリ(スマス)
 Yo!; Wow! やあ
 Nice to meet you どうぞよろしく・初めまして

Slangish Interjections

 What's up おっす
 Here it comes キタ
 Nice to meet you
 4649 (Internet)
 Lol 笑・wwww (Internet)・ワロタ

Usage Note: Words that come from the infamous site 2ちゃんねる are deemed to be used by people with low intelligence. So, avoid using ワロタ. 

Onomatopoeic Interjections

 Ook ウキー
 Caw かー
 Ook ook
 きーきー
 Yuck げっ
 Ribbit ribbit げろげろ
 Cock-a-doodle-doo こけこっこー
 Purr; meow
 ごろごろ・にゃあ
 Baa baa めーめー

Exercises

1. The interjections shown in this lesson may easily be categorized differently depending on the situation. Show how this is true with at least two examples.

2. Essentially, onomatopoeic and daily expressions are considered interjections to an extent. Give examples.

3. Interjections in this lesson that are easily manipulated in terms of speech level or pattern abbreviations were only listed with one variant. Show at least 3 examples of this.

4. Create 10 sentences with a different interjection for each one. 

5. List the different types of interjections and give at least 3 examples of each.