第137課: In Order To: ため

The noun ため literally means "advantage/benefit/purpose/aim." These usages are then extended to become an important grammar point that is equivalent to the English phrase "in order to" and "due to." Below are five examples of how these meanings are used when ため follows other nouns. 

1. 家族ためう。
To think of the welfare of the family.

2. まずしい人々のために何百万円なんびゃくまんえんもの慈善寄付金じぜんきふきんめました。
We collected millions of yen of charity contributions for the poor.

3. チームのために頑張がんばる。
  To cheer for the team.

4. 教科書のための挿絵さしえ
  An illustration for a textbook.

5. 抗議こうぎのための抗議
   Protest for protest.

Orthography Note: ため is usually written in かな, but when it is in 漢字, it is written as 為. 

~(の)ために

~(の)ために is the most important application of ため, and there are two main applications of it. 

 1. Shows that what it follows is the objective.
 2. Shows that what it follows is cause or reason for the next clause.

This grammar point can follow nouns, verbs, and adjectives. However, for the first meaning, it is restricted to nouns and verbs. For the second meaning, it's important to note that に is often dropped, especially in more formal/literary contexts.

 Nouns N + の + ため(に) Ex. 雨のため(に)
 Verbs V + ため(に) Ex. 生きるため(に)
 Adjectives Adj + ため(に) Ex. 古いため(に)


6. 我
らは不況ふきょうのために大打撃けました。 (Formal)  
We got hit hard due to the recession.

7. 雨のために試合中止いたします。(Humble)
We will stop the game due to the rain.

8. 折からの雨のため (書き言葉)
Owing to the rain just now 

9. 雨のために試合延期します。 (Formal)
We will postpone the game due to the rain. 

10. 夕べはぐっすりていたため、地震がつきませんでした。
As I was fast asleep last night, I did not feel the earthquake.

11. 台風のために休校になった。
The school became closed due to the typhoon.

12. きりのため、というライトをつけてっている。
Due to dense fog, every single car is running with its headlights on.

13. なんのために?
For what?

14. 交通事故があったため、学校遅刻ちこくした。
I was late to school due to a traffic accident.

15. おさまを出迎えるために、午後空港きます。
I am going to the airport in the afternoon to meet a customer.

16. 家うために、おりる。
I'll borrow money in order to buy a house.  

17a. その訴訟そしょうつ{ために・のに}十分有能弁護士だ。
17b. その訴訟てるだけの有能弁護士だ。 
He's a lawyer enough to win the case. 

Grammar Note: ~ように is similar, but it is not used with verbs of volition whereas ために is! 

~んがため(に)

This is a very literary way of showing that one does an action with a goal in mind. To conjugate using ~んがため(に), you must use the same conjugations as you would for ~ない. However, for する, you must drop る and change す to せ.  する + ん → せん.

 Ichidan Verbs 生きる + ん + がために 生きんがために
 Godan Verbs 勝つ + ん + がために 勝たんがために
 Suru する + ん + がために →  せんがために
 Kuru 来る + ん + がために →  来んがために  X

Grammar Note: The direction factor implied with 来る makes this grammar incompatible with it. 

18. 自分の利益を得んがための発言では、人の心を動かせない。
You can't move people's hearts with words only for one's personal interest.  

19. 自分の店舗てんぽを持たんがために、必死ひっしで働いたが、結局閉店けっきょくへいてんはやむを得なかった。
I desperately worked to keep my shop open, but in the end, closing down was unavoidable. 

20. 彼は夢を実現させんがため、上京じょうきょうした。
      He moved to Tokyo in order to fulfill his dreams.

21. 麻薬反対まやくはんたいという思いを示さんがために、彼はあらゆる方法をこころみた。
He tried out every method to show his thoughts for being against drugs.

22. 我が子の無罪を証明せんがために、必死で証拠しょうこを探そうとちかった。
I vowed to search desperately for proof to prove his child's innocence.  

23. 勝たんがためには、どんな手でも使ってくる。
To use any means in order to win.

24. 彼は子供を救わんがために、命を落とした。
He lost his life trying in saving the child.  

25. 彼は、漢検1級に合格せんがために、毎日必死で頑張った。
He did his best every day desperately to pass the Kanken Level 1. 

26. 事実を明らかにせんがために、あらゆる手をくす。
To use up every method to uncover the facts.

27. 国会で法案ほうあんを通さんがため、首相しゅしょう根回ねまわ工作こうさくを開始した。
The Prime Minister began to pull the strings to get the bill through the Diet. 

28. 社長にならんがために、色々な裏工作うらこうさくをしていたといわれる。
It is said that (he) did all sorts of maneuvering behind the scenes to become the company president.  

29. ただ一流いちりゅう大学に入らんがために勉強している人が多い。
There are a lot of people that are studying to just get into a first rate university.  

30. 支配者しはいしゃ権力けんりょくを保たんがために、強硬手段きょうこうしゅだんを取った。
The ruler took strong measures to maintain power. 

Grammar Note: 終止形+がために is a common mistake even among natives. The む seen as ん in this grammar pattern is in the 連体形. You can translate this pattern more directly into Modern Japanese with ~(よ)うとするために. 

What is not taught in textbooks is its usage after other things such as adjectives or the past tense. These usages are also not 100% proper, and many do not think that they are grammatical. However, many people think that this is just a more formal phrasing. Instances can even be found in literature. 

31. この海が見たいがために、毎朝起きる気がするのだった。
She felt the urge to wake up in the morning to see the ocean.
From 光の雨 by 立松和平.