第67課: The Giving Verbs

Japanese has specific verbs that define the relationship between the giver and recipient. Their usages with て are so important and particularly difficult that they will be covered separately. 

The 3 Personal Giving Verbs

     The main verbs of giving are あげる, くれる, and もらう. They also have different forms.

 Vulgar Regular Respectful
 やる あげる 差し上げる
  くれる 下さる
  もらう いただく

Conjugation Note: The 連用形(れんようけい) of ()さる has a sound change of り → い with -ます.

      あげる shows oneself giving something. It may also be used to show the giving of things by people in one's in-group to other (close) in-group members. This does not mean, though, that this should ever be used for when someone, even if they are in your in-group, gives something to you. 

1. 父は母に時計をあげました。私も母にプレゼントをあげました。
    My father gave my mother a watch. I too gave my mother a present.

2a. 父は私にコンピューターゲームをあげました。X
2b. 父は私にコンピューターゲームをくれました。〇
      My dad gave me a computer game. 

Definitions Note: あげる can also mean "to rise". Spelling depends on how it's used. やる may be a casual form of "to do", and it can also mean "to send; dispatch", "to kill", "to show (movie)", "to drink (alcohol)", "to suffer from", etc.

  くれる means an outsider or a less close member gives something to the speaker or to a member of one's in-group. So, it is when someone gives something to either you or someone in your in group. It may also be used to describe either you or someone in your in-group doing something unpleasant to an opposing person. This is similar to "to let someone have...".

     もらう and its variant means "to receive; get".  It may also mean "to welcome someone/something into the family". いただく is always said when receiving food, especially at the beginning of a meal.

Particle NoteFor "to give", に is used to mark the recipient while for "to receive", the giver is marked by に. For the latter, から may be used instead.  から, unlike に, may also be used with "receive" aside from an actual person. 

3. 私は彼にプレゼントをあげた。
    I gave him a gift.

4. 一杯いっぱいやらないか。
    How about a drink?

5. しばに水をやる。
    To water the lawn.

6. 加藤かとうさんは、息子むすこに犬をプレゼントしてあげました。
    Mr. Kato gave a dog to his son as a present.

7. 社長しゃちょうさんは私に紹介状しょうかいじょうを下さいました。
    The company president gave me a letter of introduction.

8. 犬に肉をやった。
    I gave meat to the/a dog.

9. むすめはおきゃくさまに花束はなたばし上げました。
     My daughter gave a bouquet to the guests.

10. やるせない
      Helpless/miserable

11. アイディアをもらう。
      To borrow an idea.

12. この勝負(しょうぶ)我々(われわれ)がもらった。
      We took this match.

Impersonal Giving Verbs

     There are other verbs in Japanese that mean "to give" but are not at a personal level. 受ける is used in several situations for things received "outside of favor", and 与える is generally used with things given "outside of a personal level".

 受ける (Receive)
 与える (Give)
 Figurative, with things such as a ball or event. Used in respect to animals.
 Used with things such as a job, education, etc. Used when granting things.
 "To take/receive" an exam; often 受験する Used with prizes.
 Used with bringing harm.  

Word Note: ()ける may also be ()()める. It is used in the sense of "to take" as in "to take the news", "to take the events badly", etc.

13. 彼()深刻(しんこく)()()めたね。
      He took it seriously, didn't he?

14. 有名高校()目指(めざ)して難関(なんかん)試験(しけん)()けた。
      I took a highly competitive exam aiming for the prestigious high school.

15. 彼()(くび)軽傷(けいしょう)()けた。
      He received a smaller injury on the neck.

16. 判決はんけつける。
      To receive a sentence.

17. まずしい人々える。
      Give to the poor.

18. 台風たいふうえた損害そんがいい。
      There is a lot of damage caused (given) by the typhoon.

19. 許可きょかえます。
      I will give permission.

20. いい成績(せいせき)()えた。
      I gave (him) a good grade.

21. 健康診断けんこうしんだんける。 
      To have health checks.