第80課: End: ~終わる・終える, ~やむ, & ~上がる・上げる

    These endings will greatly aid in expanding your Japanese knowledge. 

~終わる・終える

     "To end" is either わる or 終える. The grammar is a bit confusing. Originally, 終わる was strictly intransitive and 終える was transitive. Remember, intransitive verbs happen with no active agent but transitive verbs have a direct object.

Transitive verbs are used with を, but intransitive verbs are typically used with . 終える may be used as a transitive verb, but it is rare as an intransitive verb. The chart below will show the three main patterns with these verbs.

 Particle Verb Meaning
 が 終わる Event ends naturally
 を 終わる To not end intently
 を 終える To end intently  

1. 授業じゅぎょうが終わった。
    Class ended.

Word Note: クラスが終わった is wrong because クラス, contrary to how it's used in English, is used in reference to the group/body of the class.  

2. 道路どうろはここで終わっている。
    The road ends here.

Tense Note: Notice the use of the progressive tense in the sentence above. ~ている is used to show a continuous action. The road has and will continue to end there unless if something happened. Therefore, the non-past tense would be incorrect. 

3. 先生は講義こうぎを終えましたか。
    Has the teacher concluded his lecture?

4. 失敗しっぱいに終わる。
    To end in failure.

5. 何時に終わりますか。
    At what time will it end?

6. 何時に終えますか。
     At what time will (they) end it?

7. それはどのように終わりましたか。
     How did to end up = How did it go?

8. その映画が死で終わる。
    That movie ends in death.

9. 昨夜の演奏は歌って終わった。
    Last night's performance ended with singing.

10. 試合しあいは引き分けに終わった。
      The game ended in a tie.

11. 動物の権利活動家らが抗議を終えましたが、反対の声をあげつづけるそうです。
   The animal rights activists ending the protest, but they are to continue raising voices of opposition.

12. ぼくは試験が全部終わったよ。ぼくの人生も終わったかもしれない。    
   I'm finished with all of my exams! My life may have ended as well.

13. これで一生いっしょうを終えるんだと思ってました。
   I thought that I would end my life with this. 

Word Note: There are several words for life. 生活せいかつ for way of life, 人生じんせい for "human life", いのち for the force that keeps us alive, and 一生 is one's "whole life". 

14. 修理しゅうりを終えましたか。
   Did you finish the repairs?

15. 生涯しょうがいが終わる。 = 死ぬ
   To die. 

Definition Note: This usage of the verb 終わる shows that one's life or role comes to an end.

16. 生涯を終える。
   To end one's life.

Nuance Note: This does not show intent. Otherwise, it would refer to suicide which it does not.

17. 宿題をおえたぞ。 (Masculine)
   I finished my homework.

18. 会議かいぎを終わる。
      To end a meeting (halfway).

19. 会議を終える。
      To end a meeting.

20.  会議が終わる。
       The meeting ends.

漢字 Note: 了 and 卒 (which signifies graduation) may also be used instead of 終, but they're uncommon. 


 ~終わる・終える

In compounds ~終わる shows that an action ends or is completed. ~終わる is used with intransitive and transitive verbs, and it is the initial verb that decides the transitivity of the compound verb phrase.

When you see ~終わる with transitive verbs, it shows that the subject of the sentence has finished something naturally or unintentionally in the sense that there is not necessarily a motive or goal for completion. For instance, you may finish paying off your student loan to college eleven years out of the fact. If you wanted to say you finished paying off your loan, you would use Ex. 21. 

~終える signifies that one ends an action, and it must only be used with verbs of volition. Also, ~終える is more frequently seen in the written language, no doubt because one's intent is more powerfully expressed with it.  

These endings can't be with condition verbs like いる or できる. They can't attach to verbs of change or movement because there is no end point. 

21. ローンを(はら)い終わりました。
       I finished paying off the loan.

22. 宿題をし終えて、外へ遊びに行った。 
      I finished my homework and went outside to play. 

23. 取引とりひきを終える。
      To close (as in the stock market).

24. その本を読み終えましたか。
      Did you finish reading that book?

25. 早くやり終える。
      To get it over with.

26. 彼は歌い終わりました。
      He finished singing.

27. 小説を書き終えた。
       I ended writing the novel.

28. 彼が意見を言い終わるか終わらないうちに、あの人は邪魔をして口を挟んだ。
   Before he could finish saying his opinion, that person interjected himself.  

~やむ

()む means "to end/stop" and is intransitive. Its counterpart that is used for personal action is 止める. In compounds やむ is only used with verbs that occur naturally. For anything else, use やむ or やめる (the transitive form of “to stop”) as independent verbs.      

29. 雨が降り止んだ。
      雨がやんだ。 (More common)  
      It stopped raining.

30. 音楽おんがくが止みました。
   The music stopped.

31. なにかをやめることが必要かもしれません。
   It might be necessary to quit/stop (doing) something.


To Quit Doing

     "To quit/stop doing" is made with a nominalizer plus やめる. Change in habit itself is shown by the negative with "ようになる". 

32. 彼は勉強するのをやめた。
     He stopped studying.

33. 彼はタバコを()わないようになった。
     He stopped smoking.

34. 私はそれを表示できないようになってしまいました。
      I ended up not being able to display it.   

Meaning Note: ~てしまう = To end up 

~上がる・上げる

  上がる and 上げる are verbal pairs to express raising and lifting. Of course, there are many usages of these two words. 上がる is intransitive and 上げる is transitive. These broad meanings will make sense once you see how they are applied to actual compounds.

 ~上がる ~上げる
 An action ends To do exhaustively/to a limit 
 An action is completed To do an action completely
  Adds a sense of humility
  To show an explicit wording

35. 彼女は歌い上げました。
      She sang to the top of her voice.

36. 氏名しめいを読み上げる。
      To read out a name. 

37. 何とぞよろしくお(ねが)(もう)し上げます。
       I kindly ask for you to remember me on my behalf.

38. 本をすっかり書き上げた。
       I completely wrote up the book.

39. 全部数ぜんぶかぞえあげたのか。(A little rough)
      Did you count it all up?

40. 空が()れ上がった。
      The sky cleared up.

41. きあがる。(Never transitive)
      To finish burning. 

42. いい食事が出来上がりました。
  A great meal is ready.

43. 街中まちなかふるえ上がった。
      The town shuddered.