第???課: Disregard II: によらず & (の)いかん{にかかわらず・を問わず・によらず}


This lesson continues on the topic of expressions that translate as "regardless of/irrespective of." For the most part, most of this lesson brings very little new information aside from the introduction of によらず and the use of いかん with this expression as well as those introduced in the introductory lesson on this topic.

によらず

によらず comes from the verb 依る in conjunction with the auxiliary verb ず. It is inherently the negative form of によって, which is used most often to show the agent of sentence—“by” which/whom something is done, or to show means. As によらず, it may either show that something is “not by…” or that “X” is concerned with the situation at hand. Ultimately, its main purpose is to reject dependency. In other words, the Y circumstance is not dependent on an X circumstance.

Nouns that it is most likely to follow include those that deal with kind, standards, hope, efforts, goals, etc.

1. 人間(にんげん)(すく)いは、人間(にんげん)資質(ししつ)性格(せいかく)努力(どりょく)経験(けいけん)などにはよらず、神様(かみさま)(あい)福音(ふくいん)(しん)じることによって、(かみ)(すく)いに(いた)ることが出来るというものです。
Man’s salvation does not come by a person’s endowments, nature, efforts, or experiences, but by believing in God’s love and His Gospel, one may be able to attain God’s saving grace.

Sentence Note: によらず is very common with religious expressions. This is partly because many religious texts are translated works; however, they do provide perfect context for this expression.

2. ()かけによらず()べるんですね。
You sure eat a lot despite your appearance, huh.

3. 仕事(しごと)内容(ないよう)によらず、給料(きゅうりょう)一定(いってい)している。
Salaries are fixed regardless of the substance of one’s work.

4. 武力(ぶりょく)によらず、権力(けんりょく)によらず、ただ()(れい)によって、()ちはだかる(やま)平地(へいち)となる。
Neither by force of arms nor by authority but by my spirit alone, this mountain which looms forth shall become flat land.

5. ()えるところによらず、信仰(しんこう)によって(あゆ)む。
I walk not by where I can see but by faith.

6. 北極星(ほっきょくせい)季節(きせつ)時間(じかん)によらず、いつも(おな)真北(まきた)方角(ほうがく)()えます。
Polaris is always seen in the same due north direction regardless of time or season.

7. 許可(きょか)によらず農地等(のうちとう)取得(しゅとく)できる場合(ばあい)があります。
There are circumstances in which one can obtain agriculture land and such irrespective of license.

8. 生体(せいたい)サンプルによらず血液(けつえき)使(つか)ってリアルタイムでガンの検査(けんさ)出来(でき)るようになりました。
It has become possible to do cancer screening in real time by using blood and not by using a biological sample.

Spelling Note: ガン may also be spelled as 癌.

9. 法律(ほうりつ)によらず顔認証装置(かおにんしょうそうち)使用(しよう)することは(あき)らかに違法(いほう)なのです。
The use of face recognition apparatuses irrespective of the law is clearly unlawful.

10. 何人(なんにん)も、(ほう)適正(てきせい)手続(てつづ)きによらずに、生命(せいめい)自由(じゆう)、または財産(ざいさん)(うば)われることはない。
All people will never be robbed of one’s life, freedom, or property without due process of the law.


Typically, whenever the noun in question is an interrogative phrase such as 誰, 何, 何事, etc. it can be interpreted as meaning “regardless of/no matter…”

11. 何事(なにごと)によらず、いつでも相談(そうだん)してください。
Regardless of whatever it is, please consult with me at any time.

12. (おとうと)(なに)によらず臆病(おくびょう)なところがとても心配(しんぱい)です。
I am very worried about how my little brother is timid regardless of what it is.


によらず can be seen as によらない at the end of a sentence. This grammatical situation is very indicative of the written language. The grammatical pattern itself is already quite stiff and formal. This was also the case with にかかわらない, but because that pattern is not used at the end of a sentence, によらない makes up for this.

13. 参加(さんか)可否(かひ)年齢(ねんれい)によらない。
Consideration of participation is irrespective of age.


There are quite a few common set phrases that utilize the meaning of “irrespective of…” For instance, the translation of “You can’t just a book by its cover” uses this meaning of によらず. As you can see, these phrases utilize this pattern at the end of the sentence.

14. (ひと)()()によらず。
You can’t judge a book by its cover/a man can’t be judged by his appearance.

15. 吉凶(きっきょう)(ひと)によりて(にち)によらず。 
Fortune comes by one’s action, not by the day.

Sentence Note: Ex. 15 shows how the meanings of “by” and indicating relation can blend together and are one of the same thing. This shows that there is always agency involved with whatever によらず attaches to, or more specifically, the lack thereof. 

(の)いかん{にかかわらず・を問わず・によらず}

(の)いかん can be inserted before either にかかわらず, を問わず, によらず with hardly any change in meaning these patterns. いかん, written as 如何 in 漢字, means “circumstance” as in “how” situation X is. Interestingly enough, いかん can attach to nouns without needing to use the particle の. This is why の is in parentheses. If いかん attaches to a phrase that are uses the particle の, the instance that would be before いかん is typically omitted.


~(の)いかんにかかわらず

 With にもかかわらず, (の)いかん typically follows words that involve multiple parts or selections. (の)いかん can only be added to nouns. These nouns, naturally, deal with circumstance. The nouns that are best with にかかわらず can be standalone nouns that refer to a single entity (ex. 契約 = Contract). It's also common with nouns created by pairing two things together like 有無 (existence or nonexistence). It is also great with nouns with indeterminate amount of outcomes such as 結果 (results) and 内容 (content). It isn’t, however, used with lists of three or more nouns.

16. 採否(さいひ)(の)いかんにかかわらず、結果(けっか)郵便(ゆうびん)でお()らせ(いた)します。 
We will notify you of the results via mail whether you are recruited or not.

17. 法律内容(ほうりつないよう)(の)いかんにかかわらず、売春(ばいしゅん)種々(しゅじゅ)接客業(せっきゃくぎょう)(むす)()いて多様(たよう)形態(けいたい)()りつつ存在(そんざい)している。
Regardless of the legal circumstances, prostitution is connected to various service trades and exists in diverse forms.

18. 検査(けんさ)結果(けっか)いかんにかかわらず、早急(さっきゅう)にご報告差(ほうこくさ)()げます。
Regardless of the examination results, we will report them to you immediately.

19. 国籍(こくせき)(の)いかんにかかわらず、優秀(ゆうしゅう)人材(じんざい)(もと)めております。
We are seeking excellent talented people irrespective of nationality.

20. 調査(ちょうさ)結果(けっか)いかんにかかわらず、ご連絡(れんらく)ください。
Regardless of the results of the investigation, please contact me/us.

21. 履歴書等の応募書類は、結果いかんにかかわらず、ご返却いたしませんので、ご了承ください。
We do not return application documents such as one’s resume regardless of one’s results, so please understand this.

22. 検査(けんさ)結果(けっか)いかんにかかわらず、インフルエンザのような症状(しょうじょう)があれば、周囲(しゅうい)(ひと)にうつす可能性(かのうせい)があります。
Regardless of the results of your examination, if you have symptoms like that of the flu, there is the possibility that you may spread (the illness) to those around you.

23. 乳牛及び肉用牛農家の全てに立入検査を実施し、疑いのある症状を発見した場合は、検査を行うとともに検査の結果いかんにかかわらず、全て焼却処分され、食肉や肉骨粉の形で流通することがないようにします。
Site inspections of the entirety of farmhouses, both milk cows and beef cattle, are to be implemented; in the case that it is suspected that symptoms have been detected, all (cows) are to be incinerated along with examination regardless of the examination’s results, and efforts will be made to make sure that none of it is circulated in the form of meat and/or meat-and-bone meal.

24. 国民投票(こくみんとうひょう)結果(けっか)いかんにかかわらず、財政赤字(ざいせいあかじ)成長停滞(せいちょうていたい)という経済問題(けいざいもんだい)()わらない。
Regardless of the results of a national referendum, the economic problems involving the budget deficit and slowdown in economic growth won’t change. 


 ~(の)いかんを問わず

を問わず itself is used most with nouns that refer to two or more elements. Unlike with にかかわらず, を問わず can be used with three or more nouns. This can be seen in Ex 25. 

25. 学歴(がくれき)年齢(ねんれい)性別(せいべつ)過去(かこ)実績(じっせき)のいかんを()わず、初任給(しょにんきゅう)一律(いちりつ)です。
Regardless of one’s education, age, sex, or past accomplishments, initial salary is at a flat rate.

26. 国籍(こくせき)のいかんを()わず、どなたでも参加(さんか)できます。
Anyone can participate regardless of nationality.

27. 理由(りゆう)のいかんを()わず、無断欠席(むだんけっせき)(ゆる)されません。
Whatever the reason, truancy is impermissible.

28. 事業所(じぎょうしょ)使用材料(しようざいりょう)のいかんを()わず分類(ぶんるい)される。
Enterprises are categorized irrespective of materials used.

29. 損害発生(そんがいはっせい)原因(げんいん)いかんを()わず、責任(せきにん)一切負(いっさいお)わない。
Regardless of the cause of the breakage, we are not responsible whatsoever.

30. 国家(こっか)必要(ひつよう)事業(じぎょう)利益(りえき)のいかんを()わず、実際(じっさい)利益(りえき)()げるようにす(る)べきだ。
We ought to make sure to actually increase the profits of industries that are necessary for the nation regardless of their (current) profit.

31. 事実(じじつ)いかんを()わず名誉毀損(めいよきそん)(うった)えられる。
To be sued for libel irrespective of the facts.

32. 会員(かいいん)は、理由(りゆう)のいかんを()わず、本規定(ほんきてい)(もと)づく一切(いっさい)権利及(けんりおよ)義務(ぎむ)について、これを第三者(だいさんしゃ)譲渡(ゆずりわた)し、担保(たんぽ)(よう)(きょう)することはできません。
A member transfers all rights and obligations founded in these provisions to the third-party beneficiary and cannot use them as collateral for whatever reason. 


~(の)いかんによらず

  によらず’s main function is to deny dependence. The words that are associated with things that people depend on, whether it be means by which they do things or whether it be things that people rely on, the purpose of によらず is to state that situation Y is not dependent on them. によらず is actually more commonly used with (の)いかん than it is without it. The use of いかん helps facilitate rejecting that a Y circumstance is dependent on an X circumstance.

33. 理由(りゆう)のいかんによらず、殺害(さつがい)(ゆる)されないことである。
Murder is not permissible for any reason whatsoever.

34. 理由(りゆう)のいかんによらず、試験開始後(しけんかいしご)入室(にゅうしつ)(みと)めません。
Entry once the exam has begun will not be approved for any reason whatsoever.

35. 理由(りゆう)のいかんによらず、10(じっ)分以上遅刻(ぷんいじょうちこく)した場合(ばあい)試験(しけん)()けられません。
You will not be able to take the exam in the event you are late ten minutes or longer whatever the reason may be.

36. 理由(りゆう)のいかんによらず、欠勤(けっきん)欠勤(けっきん)であります。
An absence from work is an absence whatever the reason.

37. ジュバ()(のぞ)(みなみ)スーダンへの渡航(とこう)は、目的(もくてき)のいかんによらず延期(えんき)して(くだ)さい。
Please postpone voyage to South Sudan, excluding the city of Juba, whatever your objective may be.

38. 一旦受理(いったんじゅり)した書類(しょるい)はいかんによらず返還(へんかん)いたしません。
We will not return documentation that has been accepted whatever the reason may be.

39. 理由(りゆう)のいかんによらず、良品(りょうひん)返品(へんぴん)はお()()りできません。
We cannot accept the return of non-defective products whatever the reason may be.

40. 出席欠席(しゅっせきけっせき)のいかんによらず、(かなら)ずメールで返事(へんじ)をするようお(ねが)(いた)します。
Whether you attend or are absent, we ask that you please reply via e-mail regardless.