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第105課: Directions

      Having a large vocabulary is important. So, let's learn about places for directions!

Places

 Place 所 ところ Amusement park 遊園地 ゆうえんち
 Post office 郵便局 ゆうびんきょく Bank 銀行 ぎんこう
 Company 会社 かいしゃ Work 仕事 しごと
 Hospital 病院 びょういん Graduate school 大学院 だいがくいん
 College 大学 だいがく Department store デパート デパート
 School 学校 がっこう Department store 百貨店 ひゃっかてん
 Theater  映画館 えいがかん Convenience store コンビニ コンビに
 Coffee shop 喫茶店 きっさてん Supermarket スーパー スーパー
 Park  こうえん Museum 博物館 はくぶつかん
 Home  いえ Restaurant レストラン レストラン
 Police station 交番 こうばん Train station 駅 えき
 Airport 空港 くうこう Church 教会 きょうかい
 Mosque モスク モスク Synagogue シナゴーグ シナゴーグ
 High rise ビル ビル Skyscraper 摩天楼 まてんろう
 Zoo 動物園 どうぶつえん Art museum 美術館 びじゅつかん
 Shrine 神社 じんじゃ Chinese restaurant 中国料理店 ちゅうごくりょうりてん
 Temple  てら Japanese restaurant 日本料理屋 にほんりょうりや
 Hotel ホテル ホテル Japanese style inn 旅館 りょかん
 Family inn 民宿 みんしゅく Pharmacy 薬局 やっきょく
 Public bath 銭湯 せんとう Cemetery
 墓地 ぼち・はかち

Culture Note: A 旅館 is a traditional Japanese inn. They are wooden structures where guests may sleep, bathe, and eat traditional food. The flooring is laid out with たたみ. Bedding is 布団ふとん, and you wear 浴衣ゆかた to sleep.  

Shops

     Store in Japanese is みせand shop is 店舗てんぽ. Store names often end in ~ or ~てん. To address an employee of a store, address him or her as:

 Kind of Store
 + ~さん

     At times ~いんis used to mean "employee". As it is more polite to address a person with his or her actual name, always look for a name tag if available. To say where one works, you use the phrase ~につとめています.


Kinds of Stores

 Stationer 文房具屋 ぶんぼうぐや Butcher shop 肉屋 にくや
 Cleaners クリーニング屋 クリーニングや Photo shop 写真屋 しゃしんや
 Fish store 魚屋 さかなや Grocery store 八百屋 やおや
 Fruit store 果物屋 くだものや Bakery パン屋 パンや
 Cake shop ケーキ屋 ケーキや Candy shop お菓子屋 おかしや
 Appliance store 電気屋 でんきや Shoe store 靴屋 くつや
 Sushi shop
 寿司屋 すしや Flower store
 花屋 はなや
 Drug store 薬屋 くすりや Food stand 出店 でみせ
 Book store 本屋 ほんや Book store 書店 しょてん
 Retail store 小売店 こうりてん Liquor store 酒屋 さかや
 Supermarket スーパー スーパー Toy store 玩具屋 おもちゃや
 Camera store カメラ屋 カメラや Old book store 古本屋 ふるほんや
 Furniture store 家具屋 かぐや Jewelry store  宝石店ほうせきてん
 Clothing store 衣料品屋 いりょうひんや Restaurant 飲食店 いんしょくてん
 Convenience store コンビに    

Location

     To describe the location of an item or place, you must use the following expressions in Japanese. Unlike in English, the location phrase is after the noun.  

 Xの前 Xのまえ In front of X Xの上 Xのうえ On top of X
 Xの横 Xのよこ (To) the side of X Xの中 Xのなか Inside X
 XとYの間 XとYのあいだ Between X and Y Xの後ろ Xのうしろ Behind X
 Xの奥 Xのおく In the back of X Xの側面 Xのそくめん At the side of X
 Xの下 Xのした Under X Xの隣 Xのとなり Next to X
 Xの向かい Xのむかい Across from X Xの周り Xのまわり Around X
 Xの正面 Xのしょうめん In front of X Xの近く Xのちかく Near X
 Xの先 Xのさき Past X Xの遠く Xのとおく Far from X
 Xの向こう Xのむこう Beyond X Xの脇 Xのわき On the side of X
 Xの方 Xのほう In the direction of X Xの近隣 Xのきんりん Adjacent to X
 Xの(直ぐ)側 Xの(すぐ)そば Right by X Xの傍ら Xのかたわら Aside from  X
 Xの手前 Xのてまえ On this side of   

Word Note: You can add ななめ at the front of a direction word to mean "diagonally". So, 斜め後ろ = diagonally behind. 向き means "facing". So, 南向き = facing south. 

1. 銀行()はどこですか。
   Where is the bank?

2. 工場こうじょうにあります。
    It's right next to the factory.

3. 近()くに電気屋()はありますか。
    Is there a electronics store nearby?

4. 辞書じしょにあります。
    The dictionary is on the desk.

5. 交番()()学校()があります。
   There is a school in front of the police station. 

6. 美術館()()病院()があります。
    There is a hospital to the side of the art museum.

7. 川(の)向うの家
    House on the other side of a river 

8. テーブルの()()いてある。
    It's been placed under the desk. 

9. 変()(せん)学校()()りにあります。
    There is an odd line around the school.

10. あそこの本棚ほんだなの下のだんの左のの小さい字引じびきの本
The book over there next to the small dictionary on the left side of the bottom shelf on the bookshelf

11. 消防署()()かいに喫茶店()がある。
     There is a coffee shop across from the fire station.

12.みずうみのわきで散歩さんぽする。
      To take a walk on the side of the lake.

13. 彼は扉()()こうへ()()した。
     He began to race beyond the door.

14. この部屋()()には縁側(えんがわ)があって、その()()です。
     There is a veranda in front of the room, and in front of it is a garden.

15. この先通行止(さきつうこうど)
     Road Blocked! 

16. 病院()ならすぐこの()です。
      If you're talking about the hospital, it's only a little way from here.

17. 駅の隣に大きなスーパーができました。
      A big supermarket has been made next to the train station.

Word Note: Remember that できる does not mean just "can" but can also mean "completed", "be made", "come into being", etc. 

Asking for Directions

     Below are some more additional vocabulary words for the examples that follow.  

 Intersection 交差点 こうさてん Traffic Light 信号 しんごう
 Bridge 橋 はし End of the Street 突き当り つきあたり
 Meter メートル メートル Train 電車 でんしゃ
 Subway 地下鉄 ちかてつ Bus バス バス
 Bus Stop バス停 バスてい Taxi タクシー タクシー
 Taxi Station 乗り場 のりば Bullet train
 新幹線 しんかんせん
 Street 道 みち Road 道路 どうろ
 Highway ハイウェイ  ハイウェイ Expressway 高速道路 こうそくどうろ
 Highway ハイウエー ハイウエー Main road 幹線道路 かんせんどうろ
 Corner 角 かど Left 左 ひだり
 Left Side 左側 ひだりがわ Right 右 みぎ
 Right Side 右側 みぎがわ Left and Right 左右 さゆう
 North 北 きた South 南 みなみ
 East 東 ひがし West 西 にし
 Northeast 北東 ほくとう Northwest 北西 ほくせい
 Southeast 南東 なんとう Southwest 南西 なんせい
 North-north-east 北北東 ほくほくとう North-north-west 北北西 ほくほくせい
 South-south-east 南南東 なんなんとう South-south-west 南南西 なんなんせい
 South and North 南北 なんぼく East and West 東西 とうざい
 All 4 directions 東西南北 とうざいなんぼく Vicinity 辺り あたり
 Neighborhood 辺 へん Direction 方 ほう
 To Turn 曲がる まがる To cross 渡る わたる
 To Go 行く いく To pass 過ぎる すぎる

Word Notes:

1. "By" in the sense of a mode of transportation is expressed by で. 

2. 側 = side. This can be used to refer to direction, side of something, a position, and a third person. For the first three, it can be read as かわ and even be seen as っかわ, but these are no longer standard readings. 

Directions Note: Directions like 南東(なんとう) are reversed if they represent location. For example, southeast Asia is 東南(とうなん)アジア.

     When asking for directions, there are many different ways you can formulate your question. You may opt to say you're lost, use a conditional, or use a certain level of politeness. Below are some of the many viable ways you would do this in Japanese. 

 ...に・へ行きたいですけど・が・けれど(も) I want to go to...but
 どうやって…に・へ行ったらいいですか。 How should I go if I am going to...?
 どうやって…に・へ行けばいいですか。 How should I go if I am going to...?
 道に迷ってしまいました。 I've gotten lost.
 …への行き方を教えてください(ませんか)。 Could you please tell me how to get to...?
 …ここは、どの辺ですか。 What neighborhood is this?
 …どうやって行くんですか How do I get to...?
 ...はどこですか。 Where is...?
 ...はどちらですか。 Where is...? (Formal)
 ...がどこか教えてください(ませんか)。 (If you would) please tell me where...is.

Word Note: You can use 何で instead of どうやって, but it isn't as common.  

   As politeness is often heightened when asking for directions, です is often changed to でしょう, its volitional form. People will typically respond to you by using the と conditional or ~てください.

18. どうやって()ったらいいでしょうか。
      How should I go there?

19. 2つ交差点わたって、40メートルぐらいってください。
      Cross the second intersection, and go about forty meters.

20. 40メートルぐらい()くと、左側()美術館()があります。
      If you go about forty meters, an art museum will be on your left.

21. その美術館()()()()がって、しばらくまっすぐ()ってください。 
      Turn left at the corner of the art museum, and go straight for a while.

22. しばらくまっすぐ()くと、郵便局()()えますよ。
      If you go straight for a while, you will see a post office.

23. すみません、()もこの()()めてなんです。
      Sorry, I am new to this area.

24. 旅館()はどちらですか。
      Where is the ryokan?

Culture Note: In a 旅館 guests live on traditional tatami mats, take Japanese baths, and sleep on futon. You will most likely encounter Japanese style toilets, which look quite different. You have to squat on those.

25. 「新幹線()()ったことがありますか。」「いいえ、()ったことがありません。ところで、東京駅()()きたいですけど、どうやって()けばいいですか。」「3つ()交差点()()()がってください。そうすると、()にありますよ。」「どうも。」
"Have you ridden the Shinkansen?" "No, I haven't". "By the way, I want to go to Tokyo Station, but how should I get there?" "Turn right on the third intersection. Then, it will be on your left". "Thanks". 

Culture Note: The 新幹線(), also known as the "bullet train", is one of the fastest passenger train services in the world. The 新幹線 opened in 九州() in 2011.

26. Xへはどうやって()きますか。
      How do I get to X?

27. 道()()いました。銀行()(さが)しています。どうすれば()けますか。
      We're lost. We are trying to find a bank. How can we get there?

28. 「()いですか」「いいえ5分くらいですよ」「ああ、そうですか。どうもありがとう」「どういたしまして」
“Is it far?” “No, it's about five minutes (from here)” “Ah, really. Thank you very much" "You're welcome”.

Then

     "Then" is それから when you're giving progression of events, which is very important in giving directions and showing what happens right after in general, and そうすると is used when you do something, something else will happen.  

29. 2つ()交差点()()()がってください。それから、まっすぐ()ってください。
      Please turn right on the second intersection. Then, please go straight.

30. この()をまっすぐ()ってください。そうすると、()病院()があります。 
      Please go straight on this street. Then, there will be a hospital to your right.

31. 薬()()(ふく)んだ。それから、()(なが)()んだ。
      I swallowed the medicine. Then, I washed it down with water.

32. 私()仕事()(さら)()い、それから(かわ)かしました。
      I washed then dried the dishes at work.

Exercises

Translate into Japanese (1-5)

1. I'm going to school tomorrow.

2. Where is the bank?

3. How should I go to the movie theatres?

4. The police station is behind the department store.

5. The neighborhood is to the left side of the highway.

6.How do you say then as in continuing your directions?

7. Explain そうすると.

8. Make a paragraph using 3 locations, and 2 specific indicators where they're are.

I'm Moving!

I will moving the think tank, which is myself, to a new location this weekend and will be low on funds for a while. New lessons are still being made, but any donations at this time would greatly be appreciated.
Aside from the Donation tab, there are also two GoFundMe campaigns to help out. 

https://www.gofundme.com/remastering-japanese-curriculum?utm_source=internal&utm_medium=email&utm_content=campaign_link_t&utm_campaign=welcome

https://www.gofundme.com/fixing-vehicle